College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.
We used a real time polymerase chain reaction-based assay and visual disease assessment to evaluate the efficacies of Js399-19, tebuconazole, a mixture of tebuconazole and thiram, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, and thiram on the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination and on the yield of winter wheat (cv. Nannong no. 9918) after artificial inoculation under field conditions with Fusarium graminearum. The incidence of infected spikelets (IIS), amount of F. graminearum DNA (Tri5 DNA), total DON (containing DON, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol) concentration, and 1,000-grain weight (TGW) were quantified in 2006 and 2007. A strong positive correlation was found between IIS or Log10Tri5 DNA and total DON concentration in the harvested grain. The Js399-19, tebuconazole, and the mixture of tebuconazole and thiram significantly reduced IIS of FHB, amount of Tri5 DNA, and total DON within the grain and increased TGW. Although azoxystrobin, carbendazim, and thiram can increase TGW, they had no effect on the occurrence of F. graminearum compared with those of the untreated controls. Surprisingly, azoxystrobin and carbendazim significantly increased the total DON content in the harvested grain because they might have stimulated the amount of total DON production per Tri5 DNA. The fungicides Js399-19, tebuconazole, and the mixture of tebuconazole and thiram were the most effective in controlling FHB and reducing DON contamination of the wheat.