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Characterization of Phytophthora infestans Populations in Colombia: First Report of the A2 Mating Type

January 2009 , Volume 99 , Number  1
Pages  82 - 88

Angela M. Vargas, Lina M. Quesada Ocampo, Maria Catalina Céspedes, Natalia Carreño, Adriana González, Alejandro Rojas, A. Paola Zuluaga, Kevin Myers, William E. Fry, Pedro Jiménez, Adriana J. Bernal, and Silvia Restrepo

First, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, eleventh, and twelfth authors: Laboratorio de Micología y Fitopatología, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia; second author: Department of Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824; seventh, eighth, and ninth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, 303F Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853; and tenth author: Laboratorio de Fitopatología, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia.

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Accepted for publication 19 September 2008.

Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight in crops of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most important plant pathogens in Colombia. Not only are Solanum lycopersicum, and S. tuberosum at risk, but also several other solanaceous hosts (Physalis peruviana, S. betaceum, S. phureja, and S. quitoense) that have recently gained importance as new crops in Colombia may be at risk. Because little is known about the population structure of Phytophthora infestans in Colombia, we report here the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 97 isolates collected from these six different solanaceous plants in Colombia. All the isolates were analyzed for mating type, mitochondrial haplotypes, genotype for several microsatellites, and sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. This characterization identified a single individual of A2 mating type (from Physalis peruviana) for the first time in Colombia. All isolates had an ITS sequence that was at least 97% identical to the consensus sequence. Of the 97 isolates, 96 were mitochondrial haplotype IIa, with the single A2 isolate being Ia. All isolates were invariant for the microsatellites. Additionally, isolates collected from S. tuberosum and P. peruviana (64 isolates) were tested for: aggressiveness on both hosts, genotype for the isozymes (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and peptidase), and restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint pattern as detected by RG57. Isolates from S. tuberosum were preferentially pathogenic on S. tuberosum, and isolates from P. peruviana were preferentially pathogenic on P. peruviana. The population from these two hosts was dominated by a single clonal lineage (59 of 64 individuals assayed), previously identified from Ecuador and Peru as EC-1. This lineage was mating type A1, IIa for mitochondrial DNA, invariant for two microsatellites, and invariant for both isozymes. The remaining four A1 isolates were in lineages very closely related to EC-1 (named EC-1.1, CO-1, and CO-2). The remaining lineage (the A2 mating type) had characteristics of the US-8 lineage (previously identified in Mexico, the United States, and Canada). These results have important epidemiological implications for the production of these two crops in Colombia.

© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society