Karen R. Bone, and
Sonja S. Klemsdal
First, second, and third authors: Plant Health and Plant Protection Division, Bioforsk—Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Høgskoleveien 7, N-1432 Ås, Norway; and first author: Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway.
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Accepted for publication 29 September 2008.
The estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON) produced by some Fusarium spp. causes reproductive problems and hyperestrogenic syndromes in mammals. In an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways of ZON production, we present a comparative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression study of seven contiguous genes in the ZON biosynthetic cluster on sterile rice and during wheat and oat infection. Under ZON production on rice, the polyketide synthase (PKS) genes PKS4 and PKS13, alcohol oxidase FG12056 gene, and transcriptional regulator FG02398 gene showed similarly upregulated patterns, whereas the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NPS) FG02394, the K+ channel β subunit FG12015, and the protein kinase FG02399 displayed a variant pattern. During the same time period under wheat infection when no ZON was produced, the PKS genes and the NPS were downregulated relative to rice whereas the K+ channel β subunit gene FG12015 was markedly upregulated, suggesting that it may play a role in the infection process. This is the first expression study of ZON biosynthetic genes in planta. The results give insight into the regulation and activities of the ZON gene cluster under different experimental systems and suggest a connection between ZON and a K+ channel that could reveal a novel function for ZON in Fusarium spp.
Additional keywords:fungus, gene expression, plant pathogen.
© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society