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Transmission Efficiency of Cucumber mosaic virus by Aphids Associated with Virus Epidemics in Snap Bean

November 2008 , Volume 98 , Number  11
Pages  1,233 - 1,241

F. E. Gildow, D. A. Shah, W. M. Sackett, T. Butzler, B. A. Nault and S. J. Fleischer

First and third authors: Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802; second and fifth authors: Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology and Department of Entomology, respectively, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456; fourth author: Cooperative Extension, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802; and sixth author: Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.

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Accepted for publication 22 July 2008.

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a major component of the virus complex that has become more pronounced in snap bean in the midwestern and northeastern United States since 2001. Multiple-vector-transfer tests were done to estimate the CMV transmission efficiencies (p) of the main aphid species identified in commercial snap bean fields in New York and Pennsylvania. The four most efficient vectors (p > 0.05) were Aphis gossypii, A. glycines, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and Therioaphis trifolii, which were all significant species in the migratory aphid populations in snap bean. Moderately efficient vectors (0.01 < p < 0.04) were A. spiraecola, A. craccivora, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and Rhopalosiphum maidis. Poor vectors (p < 0.01) included A. fabae, Nearctaphis bakeri, and Myzus persicae. Only one species, Sitobion avenae, failed to transmit CMV in replicated tests. Estimates of p were consistent between different clones of the same aphid species and among three different field isolates of CMV tested. Single-vector-transfer test results for a subset of the species supported those obtained via the multiple-vector-transfer approach. Our results are consistent with the notion that A. glycines is a major vector of recent CMV epidemics in snap bean, but that species is only one of several that are involved.

Additional keywords:empirical Bayesian estimator, group testing, multiple comparisons, soybean aphid, vector-transfer design.

© 2008 The American Phytopathological Society