Chao-Xi Luo and
Department of Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634.
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Accepted for publication 25 September 2007.
The ability to develop fungicide resistance was assessed in Monilinia fructicola isolates with different fungicide sensitivity phenotypes by adapting mycelium and conidia to increasing concentrations of selective fungicides and UV mutagenesis. Results showed that adaptation to Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide azoxystrobin and sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide propiconazole was more effective in conidial-transfer experiments compared to mycelial-transfer experiments. DMI-resistant (DMI-R) isolates adapted to significantly higher doses of azoxystrobin in both, mycelial- and conidial-transfer experiments compared to benzimidazole-resistant (BZI-R) and sensitive (S) isolates. Adaptation to propiconazole in conidial-transfer experiments was accelerated in BZI-R isolates when a stable, nonlethal dose of 50 μg/ml thiophanate-methyl was added to the selection medium. One of two azoxystrobin-resistant mutants from DMI-R isolates did not show any fitness penalties; the other isolate expired before further tests could be carried out. The viable mutant caused larger lesions on detached peach fruit sprayed with azoxystrobin compared to the parental isolate. The azoxystrobin sensitivity of the viable mutant returned to baseline levels after the mutant was transferred to unamended medium. However, azoxystrobin resistance recovered quicker in the mutant compared to the corresponding parental isolate after renewed subculturing on medium amended with 0.2 and 1 μg/ml azoxystrobin; only the mutant but not the parental isolate was able to adapt to 5 μg/ml azoxystrobin. In UV mutagenesis experiments, the DMI-R isolates produced significantly more mutants compared to S isolates. All of the UV-induced mutants showed stable fungicide resistance with little fitness penalty. This study indicates the potential for QoI fungicide resistance development in M. fructicola in the absence of a mutagen and provides evidence for increased mutability and predisposition to accelerated adaptation to azoxystrobin in M. fructicola isolates resistant to DMI fungicides.
© 2008 The American Phytopathological Society