Naoyuki Kawada, and
Research Team for Fusarium Head Blight Control, National Agricultural Research Center for Kyushu Okinawa Region (KONARC), 2421 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1192, Japan.
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Accepted for publication 5 April 2007.
Barley has two flowering types, chasmogamous (open-flowering) and cleistogamous (closed-flowering). We examined the effect of the timing of Fusarium graminearum infection on Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin accumulation in barley cultivars with different flowering types using greenhouse experiments. In the first experiment, 13 cultivars were spray inoculated at two different developmental stages, and the severity of FHB was evaluated. The effect of the timing of infection differed among cultivars. Cleistogamous cultivars were resistant at anthesis but susceptible at 10 days after anthesis, whereas chasmogamous cultivars were already susceptible at anthesis. In the second experiment, five cultivars were inoculated at three different developmental stages and the concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) in mature grain were analyzed. Cleistogamous cultivars accumulated more mycotoxins (DON and NIV) when inoculated 10 or 20 days after anthesis than when inoculated at anthesis, whereas chasmogamous cultivars accumulated more mycotoxins when inoculated at anthesis. Thus, the most critical time for F. graminearum infection and mycotoxin accumulation in barley differs with cultivar, and likely is associated with the flowering type. Late infection, even without accompanied FHB symptoms, was also significant in terms of the risk of mycotoxin contamination.
The American Phytopathological Society, 2007