First, second, third, fifth, and sixth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China; fourth author: Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, University of Hawaii; seventh author: Center of Agrochemicals for Biological and Environmental Technology, Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100026, China; and eighth author: China Shenyang Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Shenyang 110021, China
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Accepted for publication 27 October 2006.
The mechanism of the effects of flumorph (a novel fungicide) was investigated by analyzing alterations of hyphal morphology, cell wall deposition patterns, F-actin organization, and other organelles in Phytophthora melonis. Calcofluor white staining suggested that flumorph did not inhibit the synthesis of cell wall materials, but disturbed the polar deposition of newly synthesized cell wall materials during cystospore germination and hyphal growth. After exposure to flumorph, zoospores were able to switch into cystospores accompanied with the formation of a cell wall, whereas cystospores failed to induce the isotropic-polar switch and did not produce germ tubes but continued the isotropic growth phase. In flumorph-treated hyphae, the most characteristic change was the development of periodic swelling (“beaded” morphology) and the disruption of tip growth. Newly synthesized cell wall materials were deposited uniformly throughout the diffuse expanded region of hyphae, in contrast to their normal polarized patterns of deposition. These alterations were the result of F-actin disruption, identified with the fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC)-phalloidin staining. The disruption of F-actin also was accompanied by disorganized organelles: each swelling of subapical hyphae was associated with a nucleus. Vesicles did not undergo polarized secretion to the apical hyphae, but diffused around nuclei for the subapical growth; thus, the cell wall was thickened with periodic expansion along the hyphae. Upon removing flumorph, normal tip growth and organized F-actin were observed again. These data, as well as data published earlier, suggest that flumorph may be involved in the impairment of cell polar growth through directly or indirectly disrupting the organization of F-actin. The primary site of action by flumorph in the disruption of the F-actin organization is under investigation.
mode of action.
© 2007 The American Phytopathological Society