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Defense Responses in Grapevine Leaves Against Botrytis cinerea Induced by Application of a Pythium oligandrum Strain or Its Elicitin, Oligandrin, to Roots

May 2007 , Volume 97 , Number  5
Pages  611 - 620

N. Mohamed , J. Lherminier , M.-J. Farmer , J. Fromentin , N. Béno , V. Houot , M.-L. Milat , and J.-P. Blein

UMR 0692 INRA-Université de Bourgogne-ENESAD, Laboratoire de Phytopharmacie et Biochimie des Interactions Cellulaires, BP 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France. First and second authors contributed equally to this work

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Accepted for publication 22 November 2006.

Pythium oligandrum is known to display antagonistic activities against several species of pathogenic fungi. It also produces an elicitor of plant defense named oligandrin, which belongs to the elicitin family (10-kDa proteins synthesized by Phytophthora and Pythium species). Here, the potential of P. oligandrum or its purified elicitin to limit the progression of B. cinerea on grapevine leaf and the resulting plant-microorganism interactions are described. P. oligandrum or oligandrin were applied to roots, and changes in the ultrastructure and at the molecular level were examined. When B. cinerea was applied to leaves of pretreated plants, leaf invasion was limited and the protection level reached about 75%. On leaf tissues surrounding B. cinerea inoculation, modifications of cuticle thickness, accumulation of phenolic compounds, and cell wall apposition were observed, indicating that grapevine can be considered reactive to elicitins. No macroscopic hypersensitive reaction associated with the elicitation treatment was observed. At the molecular level, the expression of three defense-related genes (LTP-1, β-1,3-glucanase, and stilbene synthase) was studied. RNAs isolated from B. cinerea-infected leaves of grapevine challenged or not with P. oligandrum or oligandrin were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In grapevine leaves, LTP-1 gene expression was enhanced in response to oligandrin, and RNA transcript levels of β-1,3-glucanase and stilbene synthase increased in response to all treatments with different magnitude. Taken together, these results open new discussion on the concept of plant reactivity to elicitins, which has until now, been mainly based on plant hypersensitive responses.

Additional keywords: plant-pathogen interactions, Vitis vinifera.

© 2007 The American Phytopathological Society