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Calcium Restores Prepenetration Morphogenesis Abolished by Methylglyoxal-Bis-Guanyl Hydrazone in Cochliobolus miyabeanus Infecting Rice

March 2007 , Volume 97 , Number  3
Pages  331 - 337

Il-Pyung Ahn and Seok-Cheol Suh

National Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100, Korea

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Accepted for publication 22 September 2006.

Cochliobolus miyabeanus forms a specialized infection structure, an appressorium, to infect its host rice plants. Curtailment of prepenetration development by spermidine and spermine was more evident in appressorium development and germination remained unaffected, whereas putrescine and methylglyoxal-bis-guanyl hydrazone (MGBG) impaired both morphogenetic events. Exogenous calcium nullified the inhibitory effect of MGBG on the prepenetration development in vitro and in vivo and the disease progression. High levels of polyamines were detected in freshly collected conidia, but the amounts were reduced during germination and appressorium formation. MGBG fortified the decrease of polyamines within conidia under development and calcium amendment did not affect the reduction. Hard-surface contact augmented messenger RNA synthesis of calmodulin gene (CmCaM) and protein kinase C (PKC) activity in germinating or appressorium-forming conidia. Calcium restored transcription of CmCaM and upregulation of PKC activity suppressed by MGBG. Taken together, fine-tuning of intracellular polyamine transition is indispensable for the conidial germination and appressorium formation in C. miyabeanus. Biochemical and molecular analyses revealed that the MGBG-acting site or sites are upstream of Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways regulating prepenetration morphogenesis of C. miyabeanus causing rice brown leaf spot.

Additional keywords: Bipolaris oryzae, Oryza sativa.

© 2007 The American Phytopathological Society