College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.
Monoconidial isolates of 33 carbendazim-sensitive isolates and 31 carbendazim-resistant isolates of Fusarium graminearum were selected from three regions of China for vegetative compatibility group (VCG) analysis. A total of 213 and 224 nit mutants were recovered from the 33 sensitive and the 31 resistant isolates, respectively. Of all the nit mutants, the frequency of the different phenotypes was 44.6, 46.5, 5.7, and 3.2% for nit1, nit3, nitM, and nitA, respectively. VCG analysis identified 30 different VCGs among the 33 sensitive- and the 31 carbendazim-resistant isolates, with VCG diversity 0.91 and 0.97, respectively. Both, a carbendazim-sensitive and a -resistant isolate from the same field belonged to the same VCG. In all then, a total of 59 VCGs were identified among the 64 isolates with an overall VCG diversity 0.92. Direct hyphal fusion was observed in six pairs of vegetatively compatible complements, which is evidence of heterokaryon formation. It was hypothesized that carbendazim resistance could not be transferred by hyphal fusion or there is a small chance to be transferred between two compatible isolates. Three stable sexual recombinants of F. graminearum were randomly chosen from each of the three genetic crosses to study their biological properties. There were no significant differences in mycelial linear growth and pathogenicity between recombinants and their parents, but they differ in sporulation ability and capacity to produce perithecia. We concluded that sexual recombination presumably played a role in the development of carbendazim resistance under field conditions.
Additional keywords:fungicide resistance, Fusarium head blight.