First and third authors: Departamento de Agronomía, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos y Montes, Universidad de Córdoba, and Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Apartado 4084, 14080 Córdoba, Spain; second and fourth authors: IAS-CSIC; fifth and sixth authors: CIFA Alameda del Obispo, IFAPA, Junta de Andalucía, Apartado 3092, 14080 Córdoba, Spain; and seventh, eighth, and ninth authors: Instituto Agroforestal Mediterráneo, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Accepted for publication 2 November 2005.
Severe Verticillium dahliae attacks have occurred in artichoke crops in the Comunidad Valenciana region of eastern-central Spain since the late 1990s. Knowledge of genetic and virulence diversity in the pathogen population is a key factor for the management of the disease through disease risk assessment as well as development and use of resistant cultivars. V. dahliae isolates from artichoke (109 isolates) and cotton (three isolates) in that region were characterized by vegetative compatibility grouping (VCG), and specific polymerase chain reaction assays using three sets of primer pairs that differentiate the cotton-defoliating (D) and -nondefoliating (ND) V. dahliae pathotypes. In all, 35 and 39 V. dahliae isolates representative of the identified VCGs and geographic origins were tested for virulence to artichoke cvs. Nun 6374 and Nun 9444, and cotton cv. Acala SJ-2, respectively. Four VCGs were identified among 107 artichoke isolates, and 2 isolates were heterokaryon self-incompatible: VCG1A (one isolate), VCG2A (31 isolates), VCG2B (72 isolates), and VCG4B (three isolates). The three cotton isolates were VCG1A. Isolates in VCG2B were distributed across the region and were the most prevalent isolates in the northern part. Conversely, 83.9% of isolates in VCG2A were recovered from the southern part of the region. Two subgroups of isolates were identified in VCG2B based on heterokaryon compatibility with either international or local tester isolates, which further showed diversity in the amplification of 334- and 824-bp DNA fragments which are markers of the D and ND pathotypes, respectively. Virulence of isolates to artichoke and cotton correlated with VCG but the pattern of correlation varied with the host. VCG1A isolates from artichoke and cotton induced defoliation in cotton but not in artichoke. Collectively, isolates of VCG2B and VCG4B were the most virulent and isolates of VCG1A or HSI were the least virulent to artichoke; but isolates of VCG1A were more virulent to cotton than those of any other VCG. Also, molecular subgrouping in VCG2B determined by amplification of the 334- and 824-bp markers correlated with virulence of isolates to the two hosts tested.
© 2006 The American Phytopathological Society