Transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis plants expressing a movement protein (P50) and partially functional deletion mutants (ΔA and ΔC) of the Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) showed resistance to Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV). The resistance is highly effective and GINV was below the level of detection in both inoculated and uninoculated upper leaves. In contrast, GINV accumulated in inoculated and uninoculated leaves of nontransgenic (NT) plants and transgenic plants expressing a dysfunctional mutant (ΔG). On the other hand, in some plants of a transgenic plant line expressing a deletion mutant (ΔA', deletion of the C-terminal 42 amino acids), GINV could spread in inoculated leaves, but not move into uninoculated leaves. In a tissue blot hybridization analysis of ΔA'-plants inoculated with GINV, virus could be detected in leaf blade, midribs, and petiole of inoculated leaves, but neither in stems immediately above inoculated leaves nor in any tissues of uninoculated leaves. Immunohistochemical analysis of GINV-inoculated leaves of ΔA'-plants showed that GINV could invade into phloem parenchyma cells through bundle sheath of minor veins, suggesting that the long-distance transport of GINV might be inhibited between the phloem cells and sieve element (and/or within sieve element) rather than bundle sheath-phloem interfaces. Immunogold electron microscopy using an anti-P50 antiserum showed that P50 accumulated on the parietal layer of sieve elements and on sieve plates. The results suggested that resistance in P50-transgenic plants to GINV is due to the interference of both long-distance and cell-to-cell movement of the virus.