Unité Mixte de Recherches en Santé Végétale INRA-ENITAB, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), BP 81, 33883 Villenave d'Ornon cedex, France
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Accepted for publication 11 February 2005.
Change in relative frequencies of the three main genetic types of Botrytis cinerea (Group I, Group II vacuma, and Group II transposa) were monitored over time from 1998 to 2000 in three Bordeaux vineyards not treated with fungicides. During 2000, Group I isolates, detected mostly at flowering comprised only 2.5% of the entire population. Within Group II, the complementary frequencies of vacuma and transposa isolates differed significantly depending on grapevine phenological stages and organs. Every year and at all sites, including one noble rot site, transposa isolates dominated at every stage, particularly on overwintering canes and at harvest (greater than 86.7% on berries). The complementary frequency of vacuma isolates reached a maximum on senescing floral caps (between 23.5 and 71.4%) and then decreased significantly until harvest on leaves and berries. In pathogenicity tests on grape berries, transposa isolates were significantly more virulent than were vacuma isolates. Mycelial growth rate was negatively correlated with virulence, notably on leaves in transposa and with double resistance to the fungicides carbendazim and vinclozolin. In vacuma, this double resistance was positively correlated with virulence on leaves. Change in the vacuma and transposa frequencies was most likely caused by differences in saprotrophic and pathogenic fitness. Possible interactions between fungicide resistance profiles and fitness are discussed.
© 2005 The American Phytopathological Society