First, third, and fourth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo 58105; second and sixth authors: U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Red River Valley Agricultural Research Center, Northern Crop Science Lab, Fargo, ND 58105; and fifth author: Department of Biochemistry, North Dakota State University, Fargo 58105
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Accepted for publication 11 June 2004.
Stagonospora nodorum leaf blotch is an economically important foliar disease in the major wheat-growing areas of the world. In related work, we identified a host-selective toxin (HST) produced by the S. nodorum isolate Sn2000 and determined the chromosomal location of the host gene (Snn1) conditioning sensitivity to the toxin using the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative mapping population and cytogenetic stocks. In this study, we used the same plant materials to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to fungal inoculations of Sn2000 and investigate the role of the toxin in causing disease. Disease reactions were scored at 5, 7, and 10 days postinoculation to evaluate changes in the degree of effectiveness of individual QTL. A major QTL was identified on the short arm of chromosome 1B, which coincided with the snn1 toxin-insensitivity gene. This locus explained 58% of the phenotypic variation for the 5-day reading but decreased to 27% for the 10-day reading, indicating that the toxin is most effective in the early stages of the interaction. In addition, relatively minor QTL were identified on chromosomes 3AS, 3DL, 4AL, 4BL, 5DL, 6AL, and 7BL, but not all minor QTL were significant for all readings and their effects varied. Multiple regression models explained from 68% of the phenotypic variation for the 5-day reading to 36% for the 10-day reading. The Chinese Spring nullisomic 1B tetrasomic 1D line and the Chinese Spring-Triticum dicoccoides disomic 1B chromosome substitution line, which were insensitive to SnTox1, were more resistant to the fungus than the rest of the nullisomictetrasomic and disomic chromosome substitution lines. Our results indicate that the toxin produced by isolate Sn2000 is a major virulence factor.
The American Phytopathological Society, 2004