First and second authors: U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 South Rock Road, Ft. Pierce, FL 34945; and third and fourth authors: UMR BGPI, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, CIRAD TA 41/K, Campus international de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
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Accepted for publication 23 July 2004.
We evaluated the impact of roguing on the spread and persistence of the aggressive Plum pox virus strain M (PPV-M) in 19 peach orchard blocks in Southern France. During a 7- to 10-year period, orchards were visually inspected for PPV symptoms, and symptomatic trees were removed every year. Disease incidence was low in all orchards at disease discovery and was <1% in 16 of the 19 orchard blocks. The spread of Sharka disease was limited in all 19 blocks, with an annual disease incidence between 2 and 6%. However, new symptomatic trees were continuously detected, even after 7 to 10 years of uninterrupted control measures. An extended Cox model was developed to evaluate to what extent tree location, orchard characteristics, environment, and disease status within the vicinity influenced the risk of infection through time. Eleven variables with potential effect on tree survival (i.e., maintenance of a tree in a disease- free status through time) were selected from survey data and databases created using a geographical information system. Area of the orchard, density of planting, distance of a tree from the edge of the orchard block sharing a boundary with another diseased orchard, and distance to the nearest previously detected symptomatic tree had a significant effect on the risk for a tree to become infected through time. The combined results of this study suggest that new PPV-M infections within orchards subjected to roguing resulted from exogenous sources of inoculum, disease development of latent infected trees, as well as infected trees overlooked within the orchards during visual surveys. A revision of the survey and the roguing procedures used for more effective removal of potential sources of inoculum within the orchards and in the vicinity of the orchards would improve disease control suppression of PPV.
© 2004 The American Phytopathological Society