First and second authors: Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman 99164; and third and fourth authors: U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Root Disease and Biological Control Research Unit, Washington State University, Pullman 99164
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Accepted for publication 14 March 2003.
Strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) are among the most effective rhizobacteria controlling diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. The genotypic diversity that exists among 2,4-DAPG producers can be exploited to improve rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity. Knowing that D-genotype 2,4-DAPG-producing strains are enriched in some take-all decline soils and that P. fluorescens Q8r1-96, a representative D-genotype strain, as defined by whole-cell repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) with the BOXA1R primer, is a superior colonizer of wheat roots, we analyzed whether the exceptional rhizosphere competence of strain Q8r1-96 on wheat is characteristic of other D-genotype isolates. The rhizosphere population densities of four D-genotype strains and a K-genotype strain introduced individually into the soil were significantly greater than the densities of four strains belonging to other genotypes (A, B, and L) and remained above log 6.8 CFU/g of root over a 30-week cycling experiment in which wheat was grown for 10 successive cycles of 3 weeks each. We also explored the competitive interactions between strains of different genotypes inhabiting the same soil or rhizosphere when coinoculated into the soil. Strain Q8r1-96 became dominant in the rhizosphere and in nonrhizosphere soil during a 15-week cycling experiment when mixed in a 1:1 ratio with either strain Pf-5 (A genotype), Q2-87 (B genotype), or 1M1-96 (L genotype). Furthermore, the use of the de Wit replacement series demonstrated a competitive disadvantage for strain Q2-87 or strong antagonism by strain Q8r1-96 against Q2-87 in the wheat rhizosphere. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis and sequence analysis of 16S rDNA showed that species of Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Microbacterium, and Ralstonia also were enriched in culturable populations from the rhizosphere of wheat at the end of a 30-week cycling experiment in the presence of 2,4-DAPG producers. Identifying the interactions among 2,4-DAPG producers and with other indigenous bacteria in the wheat rhizosphere will help to elucidate the variability in biocontrol efficacy of introduced 2,4-DAPG producers and fluctuations in the robustness of take-all suppressive soils.
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici,
plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria,
The American Phytopathological Society, 2003