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Abscission Layer Formation as a Resistance Response of Peruvian Apple Cactus Against Glomerella cingulata

September 2002 , Volume 92 , Number  9
Pages  964 - 969

Young Ho Kim and Kwang-Hyung Kim

School of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Plant Molecular Genetics & Breeding Research, Seoul National University, 103 Seodun-dong, Kwonseon-gu, Suwon 441-744, Korea

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Accepted for publication 22 April 2002.

Stem disks from 2-year-old cacti Cereus tetragonus (susceptible) and C. peruvianus (resistant) were inoculated in the center (pith) with Glomerella cingulata isolated from Colletotrichum stem rot in three-angled cacti. The susceptible cactus became extensively colonized, whereas colonization was limited to a small area in the resistant cactus. The resistant cactus formed prominent abscission layers (ALs) in parenchyma internal to the inoculation site. Ethanol extracts of the fungal culture also stimulated AL formation in the resistant cactus. Initial cell division followed at 2 to 4 days after treatment, and layering of multiple cells at 7 days after treatment. After 10 days, the outer layers were sometimes sloughed from the inner layers. No AL formation was induced in susceptible C. tetragonus treated with ethanol extract or in untreated control cacti. Light and electron microscopy revealed that initial cell division occurred by cell wall formation, and that an additional cell wall was layered in pre-existing parenchyma cells without ordinary cell division. Later, separation layers formed in ALs where inner cell walls appeared to be thickened secondarily, and the cell walls and middle lamella within the layer dissolved. These results suggest that AL formation in the resistant cactus is induced by fungal metabolites, and that it serves as a histological barrier against anthracnose pathogens.

Additional keywords: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, separation layer, ultrastructure.

© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society