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Identification of a Chlorosis-Inducing Toxin from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and the Chromosomal Location of an Insensitivity Locus in Wheat

May 2002 , Volume 92 , Number  5
Pages  527 - 533

R. J. Effertz , S. W. Meinhardt , J. A. Anderson , J. G. Jordahl , and L. J. Francl

First author: Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindbergh Blvd., T3C, St. Louis, MO 63167; second author: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, North Dakota State University, Fargo 58105; third author: Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, 411 Borlaug Hall, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108; and fourth and fifth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo 58105

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Accepted for publication 18 January 2002.

Culture filtrate from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis race 1 isolate 78-62 contained a genotype-specific toxin which elicited extensive chlorosis on sensitive wheat genotypes. This toxin was partially purified using gel filtration, ion exchange, and reversed-phase chromatography. The chlorosis toxin was found to be a polar, nonionic, low-molecular-weight molecule. Wheat genotypes infiltrated with crude culture filtrate and partially purified chlorosis toxin exhibited the same chlorotic symptoms seen with conidial inoculations of isolate 78-62. All tested wheat genotypes that exhibited extensive chlorosis to the toxin also exhibited extensive chlorosis to conidial inoculations, and all wheat genotypes insensitive to the toxin did not exhibit extensive chlorosis to conidial inoculations. The recombinant inbred population derived from the cross W-7984 × Opata 85 segregated for chlorosis induction from infiltration with partially purified chlorosis toxin from isolate 78-62. The locus identified by the marker XGli1, associated with resistance to conidial inoculations from race 1 isolates Pti2 and 78-62 and race 3 isolate D308, also was associated with insensitivity to infiltration of crude culture filtrate and partially purified chlorosis toxin. The marker XGli1, located on the short arm of chromosome 1A, is linked to the insensitivity locus within 5.7 cM. We propose that this chlorosis toxin be designated Ptr ToxC.

Additional keywords: host selective toxin, resistance, restriction fragment length polymorphism, tan spot.

© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society