First author: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Bushland; second author: Department of Nematology, University of California, Riverside; and third author: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside
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Accepted for publication 9 April 2002.
Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal was applied repetitively during the irrigation season in two citrus orchards over 3 years. In a mature (50-yearold) commercial citrus orchard covering 2.02 ha, weekly applications of Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal with an in-field fermentor resulted in soil populations that fluctuated between 2.83 log CFU + 1 per g of soil and 4.35 log CFU + 1 per g of soil. Resulting rhizosphere populations of Phytophthora parasitica were significantly reduced in 1999 but not 1997 or 1998. In a newly planted citrus orchard, yearly applications of Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal at the beginning of the irrigation season resulted in high soil populations of Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal that declined rapidly and never reduced the rhizosphere populations of Phytophthora parasitica. When Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal was applied weekly, soil populations increased throughout the 1997 and 1998 irrigation seasons, reaching a maximum in 1998 and remained high throughout the 1999 irrigation season. Rhizosphere populations of Phytophthora parasitica were significantly reduced in 1998. Yearly applications of the fungicide metalaxyl and the nematicide phenamiphos reduced rhizosphere populations of Phytophthora parasitica in 1997 but not in 1998 or 1999. Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal was uniformly distributed throughout the soil profile to a depth of 75 cm in both yearly and weekly applications. When applied through low-volume minisprinklers, Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal was found in aerosols up to 3 m away.
inundative biological control.
© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society