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Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses of Verticillium fungicola and Related Species Causing Dry Bubble Disease of the Cultivated Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

September 2001 , Volume 91 , Number  9
Pages  905 - 912

P. D. Collopy , M. L. Largeteau-Mamoun , C. P. Romaine , and D. J. Royse

First, third, and fourth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802; and second author: Mushroom Research Station, INRA-Bordeaux, Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France

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Accepted for publication 28 May 2001.

Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed on 40 isolates of Verticillium fungicola collected from various Pennsylvania mushroom farms in 1999 and 28 isolates of Verticillium spp. collected during the last 50 years from various geographic locations. Sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8S regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcriptional unit and analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data were performed for the 68 isolates of Verticillium spp. Identical rDNA sequences were obtained for all 40 Pennsylvania isolates collected during 1999, 13 North American isolates collected during the last 50 years, and the ex-type strain of V. fungicola var. aleophilum. Sequence analysis of European isolates revealed a close relationship to the ex-type strain V. fungicola var. fungicola. No European-like isolates of V. fungicola var. fungicola were detected in the collection of North American isolates examined. Results from six decamer RAPD primers strongly indicate the presence of a clonal population of V. fungicola among Pennsylvania isolates. In addition, RAPD data delineated a Korean isolate (DC130) and ex-type strain V. fungicola var. aleophilum from the North American group. Virulence assays, based on spore inoculation of mushroom pilei, revealed variation corresponding to each neighbor-joining and RAPD grouping. All isolates with rDNA sequence and RAPD grouping similarity to ex-type strains V. fungicola var. aleophilum and V. fungicola var. fungicola displayed the highest level of virulence. Based on rDNA sequence and RAPD analyses, isolates displaying reduced or no virulence were distantly related to these two varieties. All results obtained for the analyses of ex-type strain V. fungicola var. flavidum suggested that this fungal isolate should not be considered a variety of V. fungicola, but rather a distinct species.

Additional keywords: Acremonium strictum , Helicoon sessile , Nectria inventa , Orbilia luteorubella , Tolypocladium parasiticum , V. tenerum .

© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society