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Possible Role of Colonization and Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes in the Differential Ability of Three Ulocladium atrum Strains to Control Botrytis cinerea on Necrotic Strawberry Leaves

November 2001 , Volume 91 , Number  11
Pages  1,030 - 1,036

Philippe Berto , M. Haïssam Jijakli , and Philippe Lepoivre

Unité de Phytopathologie, Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques, 2, Passage des Déportés, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium

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Accepted 26 June 2001.

Ulocladium atrum (strain 385) consistently reduced Botrytis cinerea sporulation on necrotic fragments of strawberry leaves. On these tissues, two strains of U. atrum (isolates 18558 and 18559) showed lower antagonistic activities than the reference strain 385. Colonization of strawberry leaflets by the three U. atrum strains appeared similar in the absence of B. cinerea, whether quantified by chitin or immunological assays. The second method (based on anti-U. atrum antibodies) revealed that strawberry leaflet colonization by U. atrum 385 was better than by the other U. atrum strains in the presence of B. cinerea. An immunoassay using anti-B. cinerea antibodies revealed that the colonization of B. cinerea in tissues was lower in the presence of U. atrum 385 than with the two other U. atrum strains. The enzymatic activities produced by U. atrum 385 during the colonization phases of necrotic tissues were compared to B. cinerea and U. atrum strains 18558 and 18559. U. atrum 385 had the highest lipase, pectate lyase, and cellobiase activities while B. cinerea had the highest endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity. The study of lytic activities hydrolyzing the fungal cell wall revealed higher β-1,3-glucanase activity with U. atrum 385, which was stimulated by B. cinerea on necrotic strawberry leaflets. These results suggest that plant and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by U. atrum 385 may play a complementary role in the competitive colonization of dead strawberry leaves against B. cinerea.

Additional keywords: gray mold , mode of action .

© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society