First and fourth authors: Department of Mycology, University of Copenhagen, Oester Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark; second author: Institut für Pflanzenvirologie, Mikrobiologie und biologische Sicherheit, Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 19, 14195 Berlin, Germany; and third author: Microbial Properties Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL
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Accepted for publication 11 September 2001.
Fusarium wilt of cotton is a serious fungal disease responsible for significant yield losses throughout the world. Evolution of the causal organism Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, including the eight races described for this specialized form, was studied using multigene genealogies. Partial sequences of translation elongation factor (EF-1α), nitrate reductase (NIR), phosphate permase (PHO), and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA were sequenced in 28 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum selected to represent the global genetic diversity of this forma specialis. Results of a Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Templeton test indicated that sequences of the four genes could be combined. In addition, using combined data from EF-1α and mtSSU rDNA, the phylogenetic origin of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum within the F. oxysporum complex was evaluated by the Kishino-Hasegawa likelihood test. Results of this test indicated the eight races of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum appeared to be nonmonophyletic, having at least two independent, or polyphyletic, evolutionary origins. Races 3 and 5 formed a strongly supported clade separate from the other six races. The combined EF-1α, NIR, PHO, and mtSSU rDNA sequence data from the 28 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum recovered four lineages that correlated with differences in virulence and geographic origin: lineage I contained race 3, mostly from Egypt, and race 5 from Sudan; lineage II contained races 1, 2, and 6 from North and South America and Africa; lineage III contained race 8 from China; and lineage IV contained isolates of races 4 and 7 from India and China, respectively.
© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society