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Replication of Tomato spotted wilt virus After Ingestion by Adult Thrips setosus is Restricted to Midgut Epithelial Cells

December 2001 , Volume 91 , Number  12
Pages  1,149 - 1,155

Jun Ohnishi , Leandra M. Knight , Daijirou Hosokawa , Ichiro Fujisawa , and Shinya Tsuda

First and third authors: Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 3-5-8 Saiwai, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan; and second, fourth, and fifth authors: National Agricultural Research Center, 3-1-1 Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8666, Japan

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Accepted for publication 8 August 2001.

If acquisition access feeding (AAF) is first given after adult eclosion, none of the nine thrips species able to serve as tospovirus vectors can become infective. The previous cellular investigations of this phenomenon, carried out only in Frankliniella occidentalis, suggested that infectivity was prevented because the type member of the tospoviruses, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), was unable to enter the midgut of adult thrips. The present study extends a cellular view of tospovirus—thrips interactions to a species other than the western flower thrips, F. occidentalis. Our findings show that TSWV enters and replicates within the midgut of adult Thrips setosus, but does not infect cells beyond the midgut epithelia. After AAF as adult, TSWV replicated in T. setosus midgut cells as indicated by significant increases in nucleocapsid (N) protein detected by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the presence of inclusions containing the S RNA-encoded nonstructural and N proteins revealed by microscopic observations. Electron microscopic observations of adult insects showed that no infection occurred in cells beyond the midgut epithelia, and insects subsampled from the same cohorts could not transmit TSWV. In contrast, electron microscopy observations of larval T. setosus revealed that TSWV infected the midgut and muscle cells, and adult insects developing from these cohorts had infected salivary glands and were able to transmit TSWV. Mature virions were observed only in the salivary glands of adults developing from infected larvae. Our findings suggest that the barrier to infectivity in T. setosus adults differs from that shown for F. occidentalis adults.

© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society