Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva 14456
In the United States, populations of the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis have progressed through three consecutive rounds of fungicide resistance development, first to dodine, then to the benzimidazoles, and most recently to the sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs). Analysis of extensive monitoring data have to date provided no indication of detectable cross-resistance or partial cross-resistance of V. inaequalis populations to the three unrelated classes of fungicides prior to the selection of resistant subpopulations. However, in this study, resistance to both benomyl and DMIs developed to significantly higher frequencies within the previously established dodine-resistant population than in the population sensitive to dodine. Accelerated selection of phenotypes double resistant to dodine and the DMI fenarimol was apparent over the course of distinct seasons of apple scab management with either dodine or fenarimol. The data provide evidence for an accelerated speed of resistance development among phenotypes of V. inaequalis already resistant to an unrelated fungicide. This finding represents a departure from the previous model, which assumed entirely independent rounds of resistance developments. The data indicate that phenotypes of V. inaequalis might not only be selected for the trait of fungicide resistance but also for traits allowing a more flexible response to changes in the environment where they compete.