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The Effects of Founding Events and Agricultural Practices on the Genetic Structure of Three Metapopulations of Globodera pallida

August 2001 , Volume 91 , Number  8
Pages  753 - 758

Rolf T. Folkertsma , Paul van Koert , Jeroen N. A. M. Rouppe van der Voort , Koen E. de Groot , Jan E. Kammenga , Johannes Helder , and Jaap Bakker

Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8123, NL-6700 ES Wageningen, the Netherlands

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Accepted for publication 24 April 2001.

To assess the genetic constitution of the Globodera pallida populations in the Netherlands and the effects of agricultural practices, three geographically separated metapopulations, in total consisting of 226 local populations, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) of total proteins. This technique allows the accurate assessment of allele frequencies in homogenates of mixtures of individuals. Based on the estimated average heterozygosity, the average proportion of polymorphic loci and the average number of alleles per locus, the genetic diversity among 226 local G. pallida populations was small. The small genetic basis of G. pallida in the Netherlands will facilitate the identification of Solanum genotypes with a broad and durable resistance to G. pallida. Instead of clusters of local populations with unique alleles, a continuous range of allele frequencies was observed. Analysis of the three metapopulations by the Shannon-Weaver index and Nei's GST revealed that the metapopulation from a region with sandy-loam soils was clearly distinguishable from the remaining two; the local populations within this metapopulation were more similar and the genetic diversity within the individual local populations was significantly higher than the local populations from the two remaining regions. These regions are characterized by wider crop rotation schemes and a very limited use of nematicides. The less intensive cultivation of potatoes in these regions with sandy-clay soils resulted in relatively little variation within and more variation between local nematode populations. To our knowledge, the effects of agricultural practices on the genetic constitution of potato cyst nematode populations have not been pinpointed before.

© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society