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Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Genetic Structure of Phytophthora infestans from Tomato and Potato in the Del Fuerte Valley

November 2000 , Volume 90 , Number  11
Pages  1,188 - 1,195

R. Jaime-Garcia , R. Trinidad-Correa , R. Felix-Gastelum , T. V. Orum , C. C. Wasmann , and M. R. Nelson

First, fourth, fifth, and sixth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721; second author: Alimentos Del Fuerte, Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico; and third author: Agridiagnosticos, Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico

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Accepted for publication 30 July 2000.

The temporal and spatial patterns of Phytophthora infestans population genetic structure were analyzed in the Del Fuerte Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico, during the crop seasons of 1994 to 1995, 1995 to 1996, and 1996 to 1997 by geographical information systems. Isolates of P. infestans were obtained from infected tissue of tomato and potato collected from two areas: (i) where both potatoes and tomatoes are grown, and (ii) where only tomatoes are grown. The isolates were characterized by mating type, allozymes at the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and peptidase loci, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprint with probe RG57, metalaxyl sensitivity, and aggressiveness to tomato and potato. The results suggest presence of an asexual population with frequent immigrations from outside the valley. There was a shift of mating type in the population from predominantly A2 to completely A1 in this period. The co-occurrence of mating types was restricted to very few fields in the area around Los Mochis where tomato and potato crops are grown. Genotype variation based on allozyme analysis and mating type was low with only one genotype affecting both crops each year. The genotypes affecting both crops were the only genotypes highly aggressive to both tomato and potato in laboratory aggressiveness tests and the only genotypes widespread on both the tomato and potato crops in the valley each year. These predominant genotypes were highly resistant to the fungicide metalaxyl. Data on metalaxyl sensitivity indicate that allozyme analysis can discriminate between sensitive and resistant isolates in the Del Fuerte Valley. RFLP analysis with the probe RG57 gives further discrimination of genotypes within an allozyme genotype. In the 1995 to 1996 season, four different RFLP genotypes were found within an allozyme genotype. However, there were five other dilocus allozyme genotypes that could not be further split by RFLP analysis in 1995 to 1996 and 1996 to 1997 seasons. Spatial analysis of genotypes suggests that each season individual fields near Los Mochis became infected with one or more genotypes, but only a single genotype, aggressive on both potato and tomato, occurred south and east to the Guasave area.

© 2000 The American Phytopathological Society