First, second, and third authors: Division of Plant Pathology, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST), RDA, Suwon 441-100, Korea; fourth author: Plant Environment Division, Honam Crop Experiment Station, RDA, Iri 570-080, Korea; and fifth author: Cytogenetics Division, NIAST, RDA, Suwon 440-100, Korea
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Accepted for publication 6 July 1999.
Strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae that are virulent to rice lines carrying the Xa21 resistance gene were widely distributed in Korea. A total of 105 strains collected during 1987 to 1996 in Korea was characterized by pathogenicity tests and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the XorII methyltransferase (xorIIM) and avrXa10 genes. Although the lesion lengths on rice line IRBB21, which carries Xa21, decreased as plant age increased, resistance and susceptibility of the plants to 31 strains were clearly differentiated at the seedling (14, 21, and 28 days old), maximum tillering, and flag leaf stages. The resistance or susceptibility of seedlings was correlated with bacterial populations within an inoculated leaf. There was a significant change in the population structure of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with regard to virulence to Xa21 over the last 10 years; this change in population was confirmed by genome analysis. Lineage I, which is avirulent to Xa21 and does not have a genomic xorIIM homolog, was the predominant lineage found between 1987 and 1989, while lineage II, which is virulent to Xa21 and contains the xorIIM homolog, was predominant in strains collected between 1994 and 1995. Our results demonstrate that introduction of Xa21 into commercial rice should be based on the regional structure of X. oryzae pv. oryzae populations and suggest that Xa21 will not be useful in Korea.
© 1999 The American Phytopathological Society