A panel of 11 different single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv) that bind to potato leafroll virus (PLRV) has been studied to assess each one's suitability as practical diagnostic tools. The scFv, previously obtained from naive phage display libraries, were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins. The fusion proteins comprised scFv joined to either the human light chain kappa constant domain (CL), an amphipathic helix (Zip), a combination of CL and Zip, or alkaline phosphatase (AP/S). The fusion proteins were tested for their ability to detect, or trap on enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates, PLRV in extracts of infected potato leaves. The tests done with the different scFv fusion proteins were compared with a standard triple-antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA that employs a rabbit polyclonal antibody preparation to coat microtiter plates and a monoclonal antibody, SCR3, to detect PLRV. Of 11 scFvCL fusion proteins, 7 detected PLRV as readily as SCR3 when used as detecting antibodies in TAS-ELISA. The limit of detection of purified PLRV for the different scFvCL fusion proteins ranged from 250 to 5 ng/ml; that for SCR3 is 5 ng/ml. Of the 11 scFv, 4 cross-reacted with some other luteoviruses. Several scFvCL and scFvCLZip fusion proteins trapped PLRV from extracts of infected potato leaves as effectively as the polyclonal antibody preparation. Four scFv fusion proteins were used in a stem print assay to detect PLRV, and the results were similar to those obtained in tests using SCR3. The scFvCL fusion proteins retained activity for at least 6 months at 4°C, and all scFv fusion proteins were fully active on reconstitution after lyophilization. A fully recombinant ELISA was devised that detected PLRV in extracts of infected potato, with results comparable to those obtained using the standard TAS-ELISA. The advantages of using scFv fusion proteins for the routine detection of plant viruses include the ability to produce large quantities of reagents cheaply in bacterial fermenters and to incorporate them into standardized tests.