Citrus viroid (CVd) group II is comprised of hop stunt viroid (HSVd)-related variants of 295 to 302 nucleotides. Included in this group are the cachexia-inducing agents citrus cachexia viroid (or CVd-IIb), CVd-IIc, Ca-903, and Ca-909 as well as the non-cachexia-inducing variant CVd-IIa. The cachexia indexing hosts ‘Parson's Special’ mandarin and ‘Orlando’ tangelo as well as Citrus macrophylla responded with symptoms of gumming, discoloration, and stem pitting when infected by CVd-IIb, CVd-IIc, or Ca-903. However, ‘Palestine’ sweet lime, the indicator host used to describe the xyloporosis disease, displayed a distinctly different fine-pitting reaction and no discoloration or gumming when infected by the same viroids. Cachexia-inducing variants contain a number of nucleotide changes more similar to hop-type HSVd sequences than to the citrus-type HSVd sequences, as typified by CVd-IIa. The nucleotide sequence of CVd-IIc was identical to CVd group II isolates common to trees expressing xyloporosis. Experimental evidence indicates that either CVd-IIb or CVd-IIc can cause citrus diseases known as cachexia and xyloporosis and that the two disease designations reflect the distinct responses of different indexing hosts to the same viroids.