First and fourth authors: USDA-ARS, Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, 3340 N.W. Orchard Avenue, Corvallis, OR 97330; and second and third authors: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97330-2902
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Accepted for publication 23 July 1998.
Maturation and release of ascospores of Anisogramma anomala were monitored over a 6-year period (1988 to 1995) in European hazelnut orchards located in western Oregon. Perithecia of A. anomala were dissected from stromata collected monthly from September to May to determine spore maturation. Spore maturation began in late summer; by January, >90% of the spores were morphologically mature. Similarly, both the number of mature ascospores per perithecium and the proportion of ascospores that germinated increased through autumn. After January, the number of spores per perithecium declined until May, when few viable spores remained. Each of the 6 years, rain catch-type spore traps were placed under cankers in diseased trees from 15 September to 30 June. Based on spore collection periods of 1 to 4 weeks, three patterns for the seasonal release of A. anomala ascospores were observed: in the 1988-1989 season, >80% of the seasonal ascospore release occurred between September and January; in the 1989-1990 season, 32 to 42% of the seasonal ascospore release occurred after mid-April; and in the other 4 years, monthly releases of ascospores were relatively uniform over the 9-month seasonal period. Timing and amount of precipitation were the most important variables accounting for the differences among the yearly patterns of ascospore release. Over all years and sites, the cumulative proportion of total ascospores collected in each orchard was highly correlated (R2 = 0.90) with cumulative precipitation. This relationship was confirmed in mist chamber experiments. A regression model was developed relating cumulative ascospore release to cumulative hours of precipitation. The model provides an estimate of the proportion of ascospores remaining to be released after budbreak, which coincides with the period of highest susceptibility to infection.
The American Phytopathological Society, 1998