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Variation in Virulence Within Meloidogyne chitwoodi, M. fallax, and M. hapla on Solanum spp.

July 1998 , Volume 88 , Number  7
Pages  658 - 665

J. G. van der Beek , L. M. Poleij , C. Zijlstra , R. Janssen , and G. J. W. Janssen

First, second, and third authors: Research Institute for Plant Protection (IPO-DLO), P.O. Box 9060, NL-6700 GW Wageningen, the Netherlands; fourth and fifth authors: Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO-DLO), P.O. Box 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands

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Accepted for publication 19 March 1998.

The virulence of Meloidogyne hapla, M. chitwoodi, and M. fallax was studied on genotypes of Solanum spp. in a greenhouse. Juveniles of 11 M. hapla race A isolates, 3 M. hapla race B isolates, and 5 mono-female lines of a M. hapla race A isolate were inoculated on S. chacoense, S. hougasii, and S. sparsipilum. Juveniles of eight M. chitwoodi isolates, five M. fallax isolates, and six mono-female lines of a M. chitwoodi isolate were inoculated on S. bulbocastanum, S. chacoense, S. hougasii, S. stoloniferum, and S. tuberosum. Virulence was expressed as nematode reproduction 8 weeks after inoculation. Nematode reproduction was estimated by the number of egg masses and, in one experiment, by the number of hatched second-stage juveniles per inoculated juvenile. Considerable variation in virulence and resistance was observed among M. hapla isolates and plant genotypes, respectively. The M. hapla isolate-plant species interaction was highly significant. The response to M. chitwoodi ranged from susceptible (S. tuberosum and S. chacoense) to highly resistant (S. bulbocastanum and S. hougasii). S. tuberosum was susceptible to M. fallax, whereas all four wild species were resistant. In contrast to M. hapla, no significant isolate-plant genotype interaction was obtained for M. chitwoodi or M. fallax, indicating no or little intraspecific variation in virulence. M. chitwoodi juveniles in species mixtures with M. fallax isolates appeared to be able to break the resistance of S. bulbocastanum and S. hougasii. Significant differences among mono-female lines of M. hapla and M. chitwoodi were observed, indicating heterogeneity of pathogenicity within meiotic parthenogenic Meloidogyne populations.

Additional keywords: genetic variation , intraspecific specialization , potato , root-knot nematode .

© 1998 The American Phytopathological Society