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Bacterial Apical Necrosis of Mango in Southern Spain: A Disease Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae

July 1998 , Volume 88 , Number  7
Pages  614 - 620

Francisco M. Cazorla , Juan A. Torés , Laura Olalla , Alejandro Pérez-García , José M. Farré , and Antonio de Vicente

First, third, fourth, and sixth authors: Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071-Málaga, Spain; and second and fifth authors: Estación Experimental “La Mayora”, C.S.I.C., Algarrobo-Costa, 29750-Málaga, Spain

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Accepted for publication 3 April 1998.

A necrotic bacterial disease of mango trees (Mangifera indica) in Spain affecting buds, leaves, and stems is described for the first time. Necrosis of flower and vegetative buds on commercial trees during winter dormancy was the most destructive symptom of the disease. The apical necrosis is caused by Pseudomonas syringae, which was always isolated from mango trees with disease symptoms. Of 95 bacterial strains isolated from symptomatic tissues and characterized from 1992 to 1997, over 90% were identified as P. syringae pv. syringae. Additional strains were isolated from healthy mango trees, and they were identical to the isolates from diseased tissues. Pathogenicity tests on mango plants showed that P. syringae pv. syringae incited the apical necrosis, but that climatic conditions determined the onset of disease development. Populations of total bacteria and of P. syringae and the number of active ice nuclei were monitored over a 3-year period. The largest populations of P. syringae were associated with cool, wet periods that coincided with the highest disease severity, whereas P. syringae was only occasionally detected on healthy trees. The median effective dose was estimated from infectivity titration assays.

© 1998 The American Phytopathological Society