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Ultrastructural and Cytochemical Aspects of the Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea by Candida saitoana in Apple Fruit

April 1998 , Volume 88 , Number  4
Pages  282 - 291

Ahmed El-Ghaouth , Charles L. Wilson , and Michael Wisniewski

First author: Departement de Science et Technologie des Aliments et Centre de Recherche en Horticulture, Université Laval, Québec G1K7P4, Canada; and second and third authors: USDA-ARS Appalachian Fruit Research Station, 45 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430

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Accepted for publication 8 January 1998.

Biocontrol activity of Candida saitoana and its interaction with Botrytis cinerea in apple wounds were investigated. When cultured together, yeast attached to Botrytis sp. hyphal walls. In wounded apple tissue, C. saitoana restricted the proliferation of B. cinerea, multiplied, and suppressed disease caused by either B. cinerea or Penicillium expansum. In inoculated apple tissue without the yeast, fungal colonization caused an extensive degradation of host walls and altered cellulose labeling patterns. Hyphae in close proximity to the antagonistic yeast exhibited severe cytological injury, such as cell wall swelling and protoplasm degeneration. Colonization of the wound site by C. saitoana did not cause degradation of host cell walls. Host cell walls in close contact with C. saitoana cells and B. cinerea hyphae were well preserved and displayed an intense and regular cellulose labeling pattern. In addition to restricting fungal colonization, C. saitoana induced the formation of structural defense responses in apple tissue. The ability of C. saitoana to prevent the necrotrophic growth of the pathogen and stimulate structural defense responses may be the basis of its biocontrol activity.

Additional keywords: epiphytic yeasts , gray mold , Penicillium rot , postharvest decay .

The American Phytopathological Society, 1998