Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva 14456
Single-conidial isolates of Uncinula necator from (i) a population representing two vineyards with no previous exposure to sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides (“unexposed,” n = 77) and (ii) a population representing two vineyards in which powdery mildew was poorly controlled by triadimefon after prolonged DMI use (“selected,” n = 82) were assayed to determine distributions of sensitivities to the DMI fungicides triadimenol (the active form of triadimefon), myclobutanil, and fenarimol. Median 50% effective dose (ED50) values (micrograms per milliliter) in the selected versus unexposed populations were 0.06 versus 1.9 for triadimenol, 0.03 versus 0.23 for myclobutanil, and 0.03 versus 0.07 for fenarimol, respectively. Isolates were grouped into sensitivity classes according to their ED50 values, and those from the selected population were categorized as resistant if the frequency of their sensitivity class had increased significantly relative to levels found in the unexposed population (ED50 values exceeding 0.56, 0.18, and 0.18 μg/ml for triadimenol, myclobutanil, and fenarimol, respectively). Of the 76 isolates defined as resistant to triadimenol, 64% were classified as cross-resistant to myclobutanil, 18% were classified as cross-resistant to fenarimol, and 17% were classified as resistant to all three fungicides; 25% of the isolates classified as resistant to myclobutanil also were classified as resistant to fenarimol. Similar cross-resistance relationships were revealed when all isolates were examined by regressing log ED50 values for each fungicide against those for the remaining two fungicides to determine the correlation coefficients (e.g., r = 0.85 for triadimenol versus myclobutanil and 0.56 for triadimenol versus fenarimol). The restricted levels of cross-resistance indicated by these data, particularly between fenarimol and the other two fungicides, is in sharp contrast to the high levels of cross-resistance among DMIs reported for some other pathogens and has significant implications with respect to programs for managing grapevine powdery mildew and DMI resistance.