1Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College at Wye, University of London, Ashford, Kent, TN25 5AH, U.K.; 2Biocenter Viikki, Department of Biosciences, Division of General Microbiology, P. O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9C), FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
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Accepted 12 October 2000.
The Hrp pilus, composed of HrpA subunits, is an essential component of the type III secretion system in Pseudomonas syringae. We used electron microscopy (EM) and immunocytochemistry to examine production of the pilus in vitro from P. syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 grown under hrp-inducing conditions on EM grids. Pili, when labeled with antibodies to HrpA, developed rapidly in a nonpolar manner shortly after the detection of the hrpA transcript and extended up to 5 μm into surrounding media. Structures at the base of the pilus were clearly differentiated from the basal bodies of flagella. The HrpZ protein, also secreted via the type III system, was found by immunogold labeling to be associated with the pilus in vitro. Accumulation and secretion of HrpA and HrpZ were also examined quantitatively after the inoculation of wild-type DC3000 and hrpA and hrpZ mutants into leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The functional pilus crossed the plant cell wall to generate tracks of immunogold labeling for HrpA and HrpZ. Mutants that produced HrpA but did not assemble pili were nonpathogenic, did not secrete HrpA protein, and were compromised for the accumulation of HrpZ. A model is proposed in which the rapidly elongating Hrp pilus acts as a moving conveyor, facilitating transfer of effector proteins from bacteria to the plant cytoplasm across the formidable barrier of the plant cell wall.
© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society