1Equipe de Microbiologie Forestière, Centre de Recherches de Nancy, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, F-54280 Champenoux, France; 2Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli, 25--10125 Torino, Italia; 3Rijkuniversiteit Gent, Laboratorium Genetika, Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
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Accepted 2 June 1999.
Development of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis leads to the aggregation of fungal hyphae to form the mantle. To identify cell surface proteins involved in this developmental step, changes in the biosynthesis of fungal cell wall proteins were examined in Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizas by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Enhanced synthesis of several immunologically related fungal 31- and 32-kDa polypeptides, so-called symbiosis-regulated acidic polypeptides (SRAPs), was observed. Peptide sequences of SRAP32d were obtained after trypsin digestion. These peptides were found in the predicted sequence of six closely related fungal cDNAs coding for ectomycorrhiza up-regulated transcripts. The PtSRAP32 cDNAs represented about 10% of the differentially expressed cDNAs in ectomycorrhiza and are predicted to encode alanine-rich proteins of 28.2 kDa. There are no sequence homologies between SRAPs and previously identified proteins, but they contain the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif found in cell-adhesion proteins. SRAPs were observed on the hyphal surface by immunoelectron microscopy. They were also found in the host cell wall when P. tinctorius attached to the root surface. RNA blot analysis showed that the steady-state level of PtSRAP32 transcripts exhibited a drastic up-regulation when fungal hyphae form the mantle. These results suggest that SRAPs may form part of a cell-cell adhesion system needed for aggregation of hyphae in ectomycorrhizas.
© 1999 The American Phytopathological Society