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Polygalacturonase and Polygalacturonase Inhibitor Protein: Gene Isolation and Transcription in Glycine max - Heterodera glycines Interactions

June 1999 , Volume 12 , Number  6
Pages  490 - 498

Ramamurthy Mahalingam , 1 Gejiao Wang , 2 and Halina T. Knap 3

1Genetics Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, U.S.A.; 2Department of Crop & Soil Environmental Science, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, U.S.A.; 3Department of Crop & Soil Environmental Science, Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, U.S.A.

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Accepted 20 February 1999.

The cell wall acts as the first line of defense during pathogen invasion. Polygalacturonases (PGs) are a class of cell-wall-modifying enzymes with precise temporal and organ-specific expression. A 350-bp fragment with high homology to PGs was identified by differential display (DD) analysis of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) race 3 resistant PI 437654 and susceptible cultivar Essex. The fragment was strongly expressed in Essex, 2 days after inoculation (DAI). Complete coding sequences of two PG cDNAs, PG1 and PG2, were isolated by 3′ and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE PCR). PI 437654 and Essex had identical PG1 and PG2 sequences. A transversion from A to C created a PstI restriction site in the PG2 cDNA that was used to distinguish the two PG cDNAs by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. A cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein (PGIP) that is 89% identical to the Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP was isolated from soybean roots by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Steady-state levels of PG and PGIP were investigated by RNA gel blot analysis in roots 1 to 5 DAI and in hypocotyls and leaves. Differences in the constitutive levels of PG mRNAs were observed in roots of different soybean genotypes. Steady-state levels of PG mRNAs were enhanced during compatible interactions with SCN and reduced in incompatible interactions and in mechanically wounded roots. Enhanced PGIP transcription was observed in response to mechanical wounding in both PI 437654 and Essex, but only in compatible interactions with SCN, suggesting uncoupling of PGIP functions in developmental and stress cues. Constitutive expression in incompatible interactions shows PGIP is not a factor in SCN resistance. Thus, the up-regulation of endogenous PG transcription in soybean roots early after SCN infection could facilitate successful parasitism by SCN.

Additional keywords: oligogalacturonides, open reading frame, syncytia, systemic, transduction.

© 1999 The American Phytopathological Society