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How changes of annual soil temperature and moisture affect rhizosphere oomycete communities
Marty Chilvers: Michigan State University; Alejandro Rojas: Duke University; John Rupe: University of Arkansas; Alison Robertson: Iowa State University, Department of Plant Pathology; Keiddy Urrea: University of Arkansas; Rashelle Matthiesen: Iowa State University
<div>Yield loss in the US alone due to seedling and root rot diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens are estimated to be in the order of 100 million bushels for soybean and corn, respectively. Soil temperature fluctuations and precipitation pulses affect the severity of oomycete disease and the species responsible. Using multiple approaches, we demonstrate the impact of temperature on the oomycete species profile that cause disease and the interaction between these pathogens and fungicides as influenced by temperature. A culture-based survey of oomycetes from soybean across the US soybean belt demonstrated a significant shift in oomycete species between years with differing weather conditions. A follow up study using an amplicon sequencing approach, demonstrated that the oomycete “seed bank” differed by latitude/longitude but not by year. The influence of temperature on the recovered oomycete community profile was confirmed using controlled temperature baiting experiment and controlled temperature pathogenicity and virulence assays. In addition to the effect of temperature on species composition, fungicide sensitivity was also demonstrated to be affected by temperature regimes. The knowledge generated through these studies will aid in improved modelling of oomycete diseases and management through breeding resistance to appropriate species and improved targeting of chemical and biological seed treatments.</div>

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