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Multiple resistance in fungal plant pathogens: selection schemes and impact on disease control management strategies.
Stefano Torriani: Syngenta Crop Protection; Helge Sierotzki: Syngenta Crop Protection; Gabriel Scalliet: Syngenta Crop Protection
<div>Several fungicide classes are used to control a fungal disease. Fungicide classes inhibit independent biochemical targets and are often applied in mixtures or in spray program during the season. By sexual recombination or accumulation of independent mutations, multiple resistant individuals can be selected. Each resistance is characterized by different resistance factors, fitness, frequency and impact on field performance. Multiple resistances have been observed in various pathogens including Zymoseptoria tritici, Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea. Z. tritici evolved resistance to MBC, DMI, QoI and SDHI fungicides, but also might express weak multidrug characteristics. P. viticola developed resistance to PA, QoI, CAA and cymoxanil. B. cinerea showed targeted and multidrug resistance towards a range of fungicide classes. Whereas frequency of single resistance is high, the combined resistance might remain at lower frequencies and can be managed through appropriate spray applications and good agronomic practices. Multiple fungicide resistance can follow different evolutionary directions in response to the selection imposed by the spray strategies (alternation/mixtures), the number of registered products, the characteristics of each fungicide and the putative contribution of multidrug resistance. A better understanding of how multiple resistances evolve is beneficial to frame the impact to disease control and to propose sound new anti-resistance strategies. <p> </div>

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