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History of extension and land-grant universities. 
M. F. KHAN (1). (1) North Dakota State University & University of Minnesota, Fargo, ND, U.S.A.

The Morrill Land-Grant College Acts of 1862 and 1890 created the system of Land-Grant universities to provide higher education for the masses. The Hatch Act mandated the creation of agricultural experiment stations at Land-Grant Colleges and Universities. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 established the Cooperative Extension Service to complement teaching and research at land-grant institutions. The role of Extension at its inception was to provide research based solutions to problems faced by farmers and the rural population, especially youths. Over the past century, the Cooperative Extension Service has taken the University to the youths and adults in the US and has played an important role in improving our lives. The relevance of the Extension Services were highlighted during World Wars I and II and the Great Depression when it was in the forefront of increased food production, helped families adopt conservation programs to preserve their food so that it would be available for a longer period, and organized cooperatives and recruited volunteers to help producers. Extension has played a vital role in improving the health and nutrition of low-income families, and in providing a safe, reliable, abundant and relatively low cost food for all Americans. The success of the Cooperative Extension System is a result of its proactive and responsive roles in using relevant knowledge and technology to help youths and adults improve the quality of their lives.  

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