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Alternatives ways for managing turfgrass diseases
J. M. VARGAS (1). (1) Michigan State University, East lansing, MI, U.S.A.

Biological control with microorganisms is one alternative to managing turfgrass diseases without fungicides. However, most attempts to control with microorganisms have failed. It appears it’s difficult to establish introduced microorganisms and have them become established in the field which is understandable considering all the naturally occurring organisms that have established themselves already in their own microclimate. Plant activators offer some promise, but only time will tell if they will be effective. Resistant cultivars whether developed through classical plant breeding or genetic engineering may offer the best hope of reducing fungicide usage in controlling turfgrass diseases. Examples of successful use of cultural, biological, and genetics include melting out and necrotic ring spot in Kentucky bluegrass as well as new findings for dollar spot control in creeping bentgrass. For this to work on dollar spot effective means of controlling <i>Poa annua</i> will have to be developed.

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