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Chemical inducers of systemic acquired resistance in plants
M. H. EL-SHETEHY (1), C. Wang (2), S. Baby (1), K. Yu (1), A. Kachroo (1), P. Kachroo (1). (1) University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, U.S.A.; (2) College of Agronomy and Plant Protection, Key Lab of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong Province, Qingdao Agricultural University, 700 Changcheng Road, Qingdao 266109, China, Qingdao, China

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of resistance that protects against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. SAR involves the generation of mobile signal(s) at the site of primary infection, which moves to, and arms distal portions of a plant against subsequent secondary infections. A number of signals contributing to SAR have been isolated and characterized. These include salicylic acid (SA), the nine carbon dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid (AzA), the phosphorylated sugar glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), and two lipid transfer-like proteins (LTPs) DIR1 (Defective in Induced Resistance) and AZI1 (AzA insensitive). Earlier we showed that a feedback loop involving AzA, G3P, DIR1, and AZI1 regulates SAR. Recent results show that free radicals nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) act upstream of the AzA-G3P branch of SAR, which operates in parallel to SA derived signaling. A role for NO and ROS in SAR was established using biochemical, cellular, molecular and genetic approaches. The interrelationship amongst the various chemical inducers of SAR will be discussed

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