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From discovery to regulation: A pathologist’s perspective of thousand cankers disease in eastern United States.
M. WINDHAM (1). (1) Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, U.S.A.

Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD), is an insect (<i>Pityophthorous juglandis</i>)/ fungal (<i>Geosmithia morbida</i>) complex that threatens black walnut (<i>Juglans nigra</i>). In early August, 2010, TCD was confirmed in Knox County in east Tennessee and this was the first report of TCD within the native range of black walnut. Since then, TCD has been found in five additional counties in east Tennessee. In 2011, the disease was reported in Virginia and in Pennsylvania. TCD may be hard to detect because the initial symptoms mimic those associated with drought stress. Since much of the eastern U.S. had suffered from drought in the last seven years, many hardwood species have displayed symptoms consistent with drought and this may have allowed TCD to stay hidden for several years in affected areas. To date, all reports of TCD in eastern outbreaks have been in urban areas or in trees along roadways. No trees in a forest environment have had a case of TCD confirmed. Since <i>P. junglandis</i> is considered a native insect by APHIS, the disease has not been regulated on a national basis. Regulation has been left to individual states and regulation has not been consistent. For example, in Tennessee, counties surrounding counties with known outbreaks of TCD are regulated. However, when a county with TCD is next to a county in another state, the adjacent county is not regulated since it is outside of Tennessee’s jurisdiction. This may make quarantines ineffective.<p><p>Keywords:

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