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Astronauts of the Nematode World:
An Aerial View of
Foliar Nematode Biology, Epidemiology, and Host Range

   Lisa M. Kohl
USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology,
Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory, Raleigh, NC 27606


Kohl, L. M. 2011. Astronauts of the Nematode World: An Aerial View of Foliar Nematode Biology, Epidemiology, and Host Range. APSnet Features. doi:10.1094/APSnetFeature-2011-0111.


Foliar nematodes (Aphelenchoides fragariae, A. ritzemabosi, and A. besseyi) are pathogens of ornamental crops in greenhouse and nursery production, and may infect some field crops, as well. Foliar nematodes migrate over plant surfaces through films of water to enter the stomates of leaves, causing vein-delimited lesions on leaf tissue. This review covers research on the identification, biology, epidemiology, and management of foliar nematodes, and also provides a new compilation of plant hosts that includes over 700 different plant species.


Foliar nematodes (Aphelenchoides spp.) are increasingly widespread pathogens of ornamental plants grown in greenhouses, nurseries, and in the landscape. There are three species of economic importance on ornamentals: Aphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema Bos, 1891) Christie, 1932; Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911) Steiner and Buhrer, 1932; and Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942. Aphelenchoides fragariae is found in a diverse range of plants, including ferns, bedding plants, and herbaceous perennials, and has been reported across the United States (5,44,74). Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi also attacks a large range of ornamental plant species, but is rarely found on ferns and is commonly reported from Europe (29,69), although neither species is limited to a specific continent. Aphelenchoides besseyi is the least common of the three species in ornamentals, and is an economically important pathogen of rice (7). Aphelenchoides besseyi is often found in warmer climates while A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae are more commonly associated with temperate climates, even though the two latter species are found in both tropical and temperate localities (76). While all three species infect a wide variety of ornamental and field crop plants, this review focuses mainly on ornamental plants grown for aesthetic value and infection by A. fragariae and A. ritzemabosi, the two species that most commonly infect ornamental plants.

Foliar nematodes infect the leaves of plants by migrating up plant stems and entering the stomates of leaves (70). Because migration occurs in water, infection is favored by plant surfaces recently moistened by dew, rain, or overhead irrigation. Foliar nematodes feed primarily endoparasitically and occasionally ectoparasitically on plant tissue, depending on the environment and type of plant host (76). During endoparasitic feeding within leaves, foliar nematodes cause brown to black, or chlorotic, vein-delimited angular lesions that can become necrotic with age (7) (Fig. 1). The response of host plants is variable. When the leaves of some woody ornamental plants, such as Lantana camara, become heavily infected, foliar lesons develop, followed by defoliation (Fig. 2). In other plants, such as Heuchera sanguinea, the infected leaves eventually turn necrotic and die. Older infected leaf tissue of Hosta spp. and Helianthus spp. drops out leaving a shot-hole or tattered appearance. Because ornamentals are sold for their aesthetic value, infected plants are often unsaleable, making foliar nematode damage very costly for ornamental growers.

Vein-delimited angular lesions resulting from foliar nematode infection of Salvia sp.   Vein-delimited angular lesions resulting from foliar nematode infection of Buddleja sp.

Fig. 1 (A). Vein-delimited angular lesions resulting from foliar nematode infection of Salvia sp.


Fig. 1 (B). Vein-delimited angular lesions resulting from foliar nematode infection of Buddleja sp.


Defoliation of Lantana camara as a result of foliar nematode infection.
Fig. 2. Defoliation of Lantana camara as a result of foliar nematode infection.


History and Identification

The genus Aphelenchoides Fischer, 1894, contains many ubiquitous fungal feeding nematode species, as well as species that are parasites of insects and plants (14). The nematodes in this genus may represent a more primitive type of nematode evolutionarily, because they often can feed on both fungi and plants, and plant parasitic nematodes of the genus have a very wide host range compared to other plant pathogenic nematodes (11).

Adult nematodes in the genus Aphelenchoides are vermiform and about 1 mm in length (55). Aphelenchoides species can be differentiated from most plant parasitic nematode taxa by the presence of a very large metacarpus, a finely annulated cuticle, an offset lip region (Fig. 3), a lateral field that contains two to four lines (Fig. 4), and a tapering, conical tail end that is either rounded or has a mucro (14) (Fig. 5).

  Scanning electron micrograph of an Aphelenchoides fragariae head showing the mouth opening surrounded by the labia (lips).   Scanning electron micrograph showing A. fragariae annulations and lateral field containing a narrow band with two incisures.  

Fig. 3. Scanning electron micrograph of an Aphelenchoides fragariae head showing the mouth opening surrounded by the slightly protruding labia (lips).


Fig. 4. Scanning electron micrograph showing A. fragariae annulations and lateral field containing a narrow band with two incisures, as indicated by arrows.



Tail of A. fragariae male. Notice the prominent spicules. The tip of the tail is curved as a result of the fixation process.
Fig. 5. Tail of A. fragariae male. Notice the prominent spicules. The tip of the tail is curved as a result of the fixation process.


Aphelenchoides fragariae was first described when E. A. Ormerod sent infected strawberry plants to Ritzema Bos in England in 1890 (19). The strawberry plants were stunted and deformed so that the crown and lateral branches resembled a cauliflower, which caused Bos to describe the plants as suffering from "cauliflower disease." Bos named the nematodes causing this disease Aphelenchoides fragariae in 1891 (19).

Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi had been detected in chrysanthemums suffering from "eelworm disease" as early as 1890, but the nematode was confused with other Aphelenchoides species possessing similar morphology, until Schwartz characterized it as A. ritzemabosi in 1911 (19). Even after A. ritzemabosi was identified as a separate species, A. ritzemabosi was still confused with A. fragariae due to morphological similarities between the two species (13). Aphelenchoides fragariae has two lateral lines and a tail ending in a blunt point, while A. ritzemabosi has a lateral field with four lines and a tail ending in two to four processes (14).

Aphelenchoides besseyi was described by Christie in 1942 (14). This species is often associated with rice plants; A. besseyi causes "white tip" disease of rice in Japan and the southern United States (15). While the most economically significant plant host for A. besseyi is rice, this nematode has also been recorded on many ornamental plant hosts (18). Aphelenchoides besseyi can be distinguished from other Aphelenchoides species by having a lateral field with four lines, a stellate mucro at the tail (14), and shorter postvulvar uterine sac than A. ritzemabosi (54).

Molecular tools can also be used to identify Aphelenchoides species. Ribosomal DNA is used to differentiate A. besseyi and A. fragariae from several other Aphelenchoides species, including A. nechaleos, A. paranechaleos, A. composticola, A. bicaudatus, and A. arachidis (24). Chizhov et al. (4) inferred the phylogenetic relationships of A. fragariae, A. ritzemabosi, and A. besseyi to several other Aphelenchoides species, and found that plant parasitic species of Aphelenchoides grouped together in two clades. A PCR diagnostic assay has been developed to detect A. fragariae in infected plant tissue (22), and this PCR assay proved more accurate than a traditional water extraction method (44).

Host Range

There are over 700 associated host species of foliar nematodes from at least 85 different plant families (5,18,29,35,74). The term "associated host" is used here because Koch’s postulates were not always performed. An updated compilation of reported associated hosts of Aphelenchoides fragariae, A. ritzemabosi, and A. besseyi is summarized in Table 1. This compilation consolidates associated host lists from around the world, including records from North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania. The earliest of these lists was published in 1936 (5), and Table 1 includes 135 hosts from this list. Table 1 also includes Goodey (18), who listed 308 plant hosts for Aphelenchoides in The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued under their Hosts, 76 plant hosts from Juhl (29) in Denmark, and 83 host plants from Knight (35,36) in New Zealand. Plant names in lists have been updated to reflect updated taxonomy. Thus, Table 1 will be of value to diagnostic clinics, researchers, government agencies, and growers who need to know what plants are susceptible to foliar nematode infestation.

The updated host plant list reveals an expansive foliar nematode host range. A large number of associated plant hosts are members of the plant families Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Primulaceae, Lamiaceae, and Liliaceae, and foliar nematodes also infect members of such diverse plant families as Agavaceae, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Orchidaceae, Cactaceae, and Crassulaceae. It is also interesting to note that while there are very few reports of A. ritzemabosi and A. besseyi infecting ferns, there are numerous reports of A. fragariae infecting ferns in the families Dryopteridaceae, Pteridaceae, and Aspleniaceae.

The expanded host list reveals host diversity, which is one reason why foliar nematode control is very challenging. Foliar nematodes can quickly spread throughout greenhouses, infesting many different kinds of plants that are being grown close to one another. Management can be especially difficult when small numbers of rare, high-value plants such as exotic ferns or tropical plants are grown. In these cases growers are often reluctant to discard infected plants because of their value, and theses plants remain as a source of nematodes. Growers who buy and ship large quantities of plants also risk bringing asymptomatic plants into their operations and can end up contaminating multiple blocks of numerous and varied plants.


Water plays a crucial role in the movement and dispersal of foliar nematodes. Dew, rainfall, or overhead irrigation provide moisture for the water films in which foliar nematodes migrate (40) to reach leaves. Wallace (70) observed that A. ritzemabosi adults moved more rapidly in thick water films that immersed epidermal hairs, similar to what would be found on the underside of wet leaves.

Aphelenchoides spp. enter and exit leaf tissue through stomata on the leaf undersurface (64,70). Wallace (70) observed adults of A. ritzemabosi entering plant tissue through open stomata on the underside of chrysanthemum leaves. He observed a nematode feeling the stomate with its head and then inserting its head into the opening while moving the rest of its body back and forth until the worm had fully entered the stomate. Wallace (70) also demonstrated that nematodes emerge from stomata by differentially coating upper and lower leaf surfaces with petroleum jelly. Nematodes emerged in large numbers from leaves that had no petroleum jelly, and when petroleum jelly was applied only to the upper leaf surface. However, fewer nematodes emerged when the lower leaf surface was coated, because most stomata are located on the leaf underside (70).

Klinger (34) observed that foliar nematodes were attracted to the tactile stimulus of stomate-shaped slits. The nematodes were not attracted to oxygen, but they were attracted to carbon dioxide gas, which would normally emerge from stomata at night as a result of cellular respiration in the plant. At night there could also be a film of dew over the surface of plant leaves that would allow the nematodes to migrate to stomata.

After adult and fourth-stage juvenile nematodes enter through leaf stomata, feeding and reproduction occurs within the leaf tissue. The nematodes feed within the mesophyll and epidermis of the leaf (69), piercing neighboring cells with their stylets to feed (64). Eggs are laid within healthy, green sections of the leaf tissues (71). The endoparasitic feeding results in the collapse of the spongy parenchyma and palisade cells, which causes the leaf tissue to turn brown (69). Nematodes also feed ectoparasitically on stems, buds and flowers (56).

The life cycle is very similar in both A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae. Males are required for reproduction, and once females are fertilized they are able to lay eggs even after emergence from months of dormancy in an anhydrobiotic state (16). Strümpel (64) observed populations of A. fragariae in Lorraine begonia at 18°C, and determined that each females laid approximately 32 eggs, and that eggs hatched in 4 days. The second stage juveniles reached reproductive maturity in six to seven days. Each A. ritzemabosi female lays an average of 25 to 35 eggs in a cluster (71). Stewart (61) observed that A. ritzemabosi could complete its life cycle in 14 days, with five days being required for embryonic development, and maturation occurring after another five days; Wallace (71) and French (16) reported similar generation times. These observations reveal that foliar nematode populations can rapidly increase within leaf tissue, with thousands of nematodes per gram of leaf tissue produced within two months.

Adult and fourth-stage juveniles are able to overwinter in an anhydrobiotic state within desiccated plant tissue and can survive for several months up to three years (7). The adult and fourth-stage juveniles have been shown to overwinter in dried leaves, dormant buds, but not in plant roots (17,27). Nematodes may be more likely to survive in a dormant state when bare soil is dry, but less likely to survive in moist soil, especially at moisture levels at 30% field capacity and greater (17,20,67). Jagdale and Grewal (27) found live nematodes in rhizosphere soil associated with overwintering hosta plants, but did not state if leaf fragments, which would have served as a reservoir for foliar nematodes, were present in their samples.


Foliar nematodes are often dispersed throughout greenhouses and nurseries by splashing water (40). Overheard irrigation allows foliar nematodes to be carried in water droplets to neighboring, uninfected plants. Foliar nematodes can also spread from the direct contact of an infected leaf with uninfected plant tissue. There have been reports of foliar nematodes traveling along weed leaves to infect new plants, being carried in seeds, and within infected leaves that have dehisced and fallen onto uninfected plant tissue (40).

Szczygiel (66) studied populations of A. fragariae in field-grown strawberry plants in Poland and determined that the population density of the nematodes in plant parts increased from November to December, and then decreased in January and remained low through the spring. He theorized that the population was responding to changes in the atmospheric temperature and humidity. When Szczygiel and Hasior (68) repeated similar experiments in 1967 and 1968, they observed that populations of A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae increased during the early spring and late fall when the air temperature was low and relative humidity was high (68). Yamada and Takakura (77) examined populations of A. fragariae in lilies in Japan, and determined that the nematode populations increased in leaves during the rainy season.

Epidemiology studies of foliar nematodes are limited, and more research needs to be conducted on the spatial and temporal distribution of foliar nematodes in order to better understand their population dynamics, and to develop more effective management tactics.


Foliar nematode management is very challenging. Because foliar nematodes are disseminated by splashing water, a common recommendation is to avoid overhead irrigation. This is often difficult to accomplish when costly overhead irrigation systems are already in place for large sections of greenhouse space, and in outdoor nurseries where rain can spread foliar nematodes, even in the absence of overhead irrigation.

Some chrysanthemum cultivars have foliar nematode resistance (21). These cultivars have leaves that rapidly become necrotic, which quickly surrounds the nematodes with dead cells, thereby reducing feeding on green tissue and egg laying (72). However, no breeding work has been done to produce foliar nematode resistant chrysanthemum plants using this information. Even if there were breeding programs to produce plants resistant to foliar nematodes, it would not be feasible to introduce resistance into all of the hundreds of plant species that are susceptible to foliar nematodes.

In the past, chemical treatments such as oxamyl and parathion were used for effective management of foliar nematodes (28). However, due to environmental concerns and toxicity, these chemicals are no longer available, and modern chemical control methods have variable results. Chemical treatments may kill nematodes in water suspensions, but then fail to kill nematodes within infected leaves (25). The miticide chlorfenapyr is currently labeled for foliar nematode control on greenhouse ornamentals. Chlorfenapyr is reported to be effective for reducing foliar nematode populations in thin-leaved plants such as anemone (51) but is less effective in crops with thicker leaves such as lantana (73). Several insecticides have also been tested for control of foliar nematodes on ornamentals with similar variable results (38). These results reveal that current chemical treatments have varied success for controlling foliar nematodes because the chemicals are unable to fully penetrate leaf tissue in many plant species. Therefore, it is likely that the most effective chemical controls will be those that are truly systemic within the plant.

An alternative method for killing nematodes within leaf tissue is by soaking infected plants in hot water. Staniland (60) concluded that A. ritzemabosi could be killed in chrysanthemum stock plants soaked in water at 46°C for five minutes. Jagdade and Grewal (26) found that submerging infected hostas in 90°C water in the spring or autumn could greatly reduce A. fragariae populations. Because hot water treatment is labor intensive, and there can be negative effects on plant growth, this method is only used as a last resort in commercial settings, or for treating high value plants.

Future Work

While we understand much of the basic biology of Aphelenchoides, there is still a great deal of research that needs to be done to better understand Aphelenchoides epidemiology, and to develop improved methods for their suppression in greenhouse and nursery settings. We need a better understanding of intra- and inter-plant nematode distribution, dispersal of foliar nematodes in ornamental plant production systems, and a better understanding of the infection process in order to develop improved integrated management strategies. Breeding programs can improve nematode resistance in a small number of ornamental plant species, but may be impractical on a large scale because the host range for Aphelenchoides is so diverse. Therefore, research efforts should focus on developing methods to prevent inoculum spread from infected plants, improving and utilizing chemical controls, as well as development of biological controls, sanitation techniques, and other strategies to limit the negative impact of Aphelenchoides.

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72. Wallace, H. R. 1961. The nature of resistance in chrysanthemum varieties to Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Nematologica 6:49-58.

73. Warfield, C. Y., Parra, G. R., and Dudley, J. B. 2004. Efficacy of miticides and a disinfestant for foliar nematode control on lantana and buddleia, 2003. Online. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 59:OT003.

74. Wick, R. L. 1995. Occurrence of foliar nematodes on woodland plants in a Massachusetts native plant garden. Phytopathology 85:1561.

75. Windham, A. S., Conlon, H. P., and Windham, M. 2005. Foliar nematodes and perennial plants: The silent epidemic. South. Nursery Assoc. Res. Conf. 50:282-284.

76. Winslow, R. D. 1960. Nematode ecology. Nematology: Fundamentals and Recent Advances with Emphasis on Plant Parasitic and Soil Forms. J. N. Sasser and W. R. Jenkins, eds. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.

77. Yamada, E., and Takakura, S. 1987. Ecological investigations on the strawberry nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae on lilies. Jpn. J. Nematol. 17:1-7.

78. Zhang, Y. C. 1989. Studies on the occurrence and development of potted chulan tree leaf-spot disease caused by Aphelenchoides besseyi. Acta Agric. Shanghai 5:69-74.

Table 1. Reported plant hosts of Aphelenchoides fragariae, A. ritzemabosi, and A. besseyi. Helpful hint: Use your browser’s "Find" function and search by family or genus to quickly find a host of interest.

Host genus Host species Common name Host family Nematode species Refs.
Abelia x. grandiflora (Rovelli ex André) Rehd. glossy abelia Caprifoliaceae A. fragariae (44)
Achillea filipendulina Lam. fernleaf yarrow Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Achillea millefolium L. milfoil, common yarrow Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Achimenes sp. magic flowers, widow's tears Gesneriaceae A. fragariae (2)
Aconitum lycoctonum L. monkshood, wolfsbane Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Aconitum napellus L. monkshood, aconite, blue-rocket Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Acrostichum flagelliferum Wall.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Actaea japonica Thunb.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (74)
Actaea pachypoda Elliott white baneberry, doll's-eyes, white cohosh Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (74)
Actaea rubra (Aiton.) Willd. red baneberry, snakeberry Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (74)
Actaea spicata L. baneberry Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Adenostyles alpina (L.) Bluff & Fingerh.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Adiantum aethiopicum L. common maidenhair fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18,65)
Adiantum anceps Maxon & C. V. Morton double edge maidenhair fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (8)
Adiantum capillus-veneris L. southern maidenhair, Venus maidenhair, Venus' hair fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Adiantum pedatum L. northern maidenhair fern, five-finger fern, pointerweed Pteridaceae A. fragariae (74)
Adiantum peruvianum Klotzsch silver dollar maidenhair fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Adiantum polyphyllum Willd. giant maidenhair fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Adiantum seemanii Hook   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (12)
Adiantum tenerum Sw. brittle maidenhair, fan maidenhair fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Adiantum trapeziforme L. diamond maidenhair, giant maidenhair fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Adiantum sp.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (8)
Aegopodium podagraria L. bishop's weed, ashweed, goutweed Apiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Agastache sp.   Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze blue giant hyssop, anise hyssop, licorice-mint Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Ageratum conyzoides L. tropical whiteweed, billygoat-weed, goatweed Asteraceae A. fragariae (18)
Ageratum houstonianum Mill. ageratum, bluemink, blue billygoat-weed Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. lady's-mantle Rosaceae A. ritzemabosi (36)
Allium flavum L. yellow onion Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Allium sativum L. cultivated garlic Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Allium sikkimense Baker chives, ornamental onion Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Alstroemeria sp. lily of the Incas Alstroemeriaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (36)
Amaranthus sp. pigweed Amaranthaceae A. ritzemabosi (6)
Ampelopsis quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Virginia creeper Vitaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Link Spanish pellitory Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Anchusa caespitosa Lam. tufted anchusa Boraginaceae A. fragariae (18)
Anemia collina Raddi   Anemiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Anemia phyllitidis (L.) Sw.   Anemiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Anemia tomentosa (Savigny) Sw. hairy flowering fern Anemiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Anemone alpina L. alpine windflower Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Anemone angulosa Lam.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Anemone coronaria L. lilies-of-the-field Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Anemone flaccida F. Schmidt   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Anemone halleri All.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Anemone hepatica L.   Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29)
Anemone hupehensis Lemoine var. hupehensis   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Anemone hupehensis Lemoine var. japonica (Thunb.) Bowles & Stearn Japanese anemone, Japanese windflower Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (5)
Anemone nemorosa L. European wood anemone, European thimbleweed Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (5)
Anemone ranunculoides L.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Anemone sylvestris L. snowdrop windflower Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29)
Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Anemone x hybrida Paxton Japanese anemone Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (35)
Angelica gigas Nakai Korean angelica Apiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Anigozanthos sp. kangaroo paws Haemodoraceae A. fragariae (50)
Anthemis nobilis L. Roman chamomile Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Anthemis tinctoria L. golden chamomile, golden marguerite, yellow chamomile Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffmann wild chervil, cow-parsley, keck Apiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Anthurium acaule (Jacq.) Schott   Araceae A. fragariae (12)
Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André flamingo-lily, oilcloth-flower Araceae A. fragariae (23)
Anthurium salviniae Hemsl.   Araceae A. fragariae (12)
Anthurium scherzerianum Schott flamingo flower Araceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Antirrhinum majus L. snapdragon Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Apium graveolens L. celery Apiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Aquilegia longissima A. Gray ex S. Watson longspur columbine Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Aquilegia vulgaris L. columbine, European columbine, granny's-bonnet Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Arabis aubrietioides Boiss. rockcress Brassicaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Arachniodes simplicior (Makino) Ohwi simpler hollyfern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Araujia sericifera Brot. white bladderflower, cruelplant, moth-catcher Asclepiadaceae A. fragariae (35)
Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch. Bip. marguerite, Paris daisy, white marguerite Asteraceae A. fragariae (5)
Arisaema amurense Maxim.   Araceae A. fragariae (18)
Arisaema ringens (Thunb.) Schott. cobra lily Araceae A. fragariae (18)
Artemisia vulgaris L. artemisia, common wormwood, mugwort Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Arthropodium cirrhatum (G. Forst.) R. Br. rock lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (35)
Asarum canadense L. American wild ginger, Canadian snakeroot, wild ginger Aristolochiaceae unknown species (75)
Asarum europaeum L. European wild ginger, asarabacca Aristolochiaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Asarum maximum Hemsl. giant wild ginger Aristolochiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Aspidium barteri J.Sm.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. black spleenwort Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Asplenium bulbiferum G. Forst. mother spleenwort, mother fern Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (18,35)
Asplenium ceterach L.   Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Asplenium daucifolium Lam. Mauritius spleenwort Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (12)
Asplenium decussatum Sw.   Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Asplenium dimorphum Kunze   Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Asplenium diversifolium Bl.   Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (5)
Asplenium dumosis   Aspleniaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Asplenium jamaicense Jenm.   Aspleniaceae A. besseyi, A. fragariae (12)
Asplenium nidus L. birdnest fern, nest fern Aspleniaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18,65)
Asplenium oblongifolium Colenso. New Zealand shining spleenwort Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (35)
Asplenium scolopendrium L. var. americanum (Fernald) Kartesz & Gandhi American hart's tongue fern Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Asplenium sp.   Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (29)
Asplenium squamosum L.   Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (12)
Asplenium trichomanes L. maidenhair spleenwort Aspleniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Aster alpinus L. alpine aster Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Aster caucasicus Willd.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Aster pattersonii Gray Bigelow's tansyaster Asteraceae A. fragariae (18)
Aster sp.   Asteraceae A. fragariae (5)
Aster tripolium L. sea aster, sea starwort Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Astilbe astilboides (Maxim.) Lemoine astilbe Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (5)
Astrantia biebersteinii Fisch. & Mey.   Apiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Astrantia carniolica Jacq. dwarf masterwort Apiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Astrantia major L. astrantia, greater masterwort Apiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Athyrium felix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mert. common ladyfern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Athyrium umbrosum (Ait.) Presl.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Barleria cristata L. barureria, crested Philippine violet Acanthaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Begonia cucullata Willd. var. cucullata wax begonia Begoniaceae A. fragariae (5)
Begonia dregei Otto & Dietrich grape-leaf begonia, maple-leaf begonia Begoniaceae A. fragariae (12)
Begonia foliosa Kunth var. miniata (Planch. & Linden) L. B. Sm. & B. G. Schub. fuchsia begonia Begoniaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Begonia rex Putz. rex begonia, king begonia, painted-leaf begonia Begoniaceae A. fragariae (5)
Begonia x hiemalis Fotsch rieger begonia, winter-flowering begonia, elatior begonia Begoniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Begonia rex-cultorum L.H. Bailey cultivated rex begonia, beefsteak-geranium Begoniaceae A. fragariae (12)
Bellis perennis L. daisy, English daisy Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch Siberian tea Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18,35)
Bergenia pacumbis (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) C. Y. Wu & J. T. Pan   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Bergenia purpurascens (Hook. f. & Thomson) Engl.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Bergenia sp.   Saxifragaceae A. ritzemabosi (53)
Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philipson   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Blechnum brasiliense Desv.   Blechnaceae A. fragariae (5)
Blechnum cartilagineum Swartz gristle fern Blechnaceae A. fragariae (18,65)
Blechnum fraxineum Willd.   Blechnaceae A. fragariae (5)
Blechnum gibbum (Lab.) Mett. silver lady fern, dwarf tree fern Blechnaceae A. fragariae (5,65)
Blechnum moorei C.Chr. Brazilian tree fern Blechnaceae A. fragariae (5)
Blechnum patersonii (R.Br.) Mett. Strap water fern Blechnaceae A. fragariae (35)
Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Rchb.f. hyacinth orchid, peacock orchid Orchidaceae A. fragariae (18)
Bolbitis heteroclita (C. Presl) Ching   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Bouvardia longiflora (Cav.) Kunth   ritzemabosi A. fragariae (35)
Bouvardia sp.   Rubiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Boykinia aconitifolia Nutt.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. cabbage, red cabbage, white cabbage Brassicaceae Aphelenchoides sp. (5)
Brunnera macrophylla (Adams) I. M. Johnst. brunnera, perrenial forget-me-not, Siberian bugloss Boraginaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Buddleja alternifolia Maxim.   Buddlejaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Buddleja colvilei Hook. f. & Thomson   Buddlejaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Buddleja davidii Franch. butterfly bush, summer lilac, orange-eye Buddlejaceae A. fragariae (35)
Buddleja davidii Franch. butterfly bush, summer lilac, orange-eye Buddlejaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Buddleja fallowiana Balf. f. & W. W. Sm.   Buddlejaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Buddleja globosa Hope orange ball tree Buddlejaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Bunias orientalis L. hill mustard Brassicaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray Carolina fanwort, Carolina water shield, fish grass Cabombaceae A. fragariae (12)
Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi lesser calamint Lamiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Calceolaria ×herbeohybrida Voss pocketbook flower, pocketbook plant, slipperflower Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Calceolaria sp.   Scrophulariaceae A. fragariae (5)
Calendula officinalis L. calendula, marigold, pot marigold Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees annual aster, China aster Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Caltha palustris L. cowslip, marsh marigold, meadow bright Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (74)
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. bindweed, wild morning glory, hedge bindweed Convolvulaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Campanula pyramidalis L. chimney bellflower Campanulaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Campanula raddeana Trautv.   Campanulaceae A. fragariae (35)
Campanula rapunculoides L. creeping bellflower, roving bellflower, European bellflower Campanulaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (29,35)
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. shepherd's purse Brassicaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Centaurea jacea L. brown knapweed Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Centaurea montana L. mountain knapweed, mountain bluet, perennial cornflower Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Cerastium fontanum Baumg. subsp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet mouse ear chickweed Caryophyllaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Ceratophyllum demersum L. hornwort, coontail Ceratophyllaceae A. fragariae (12), (52)
Ceropteris calomelanos (L.) Underw.     A. fragariae (18)
Ceratostigma willmottianum Stapf Chinese plumbago Plumbaginaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Cheilanthes alabemensis (Buckl.) Kunze Alabama lip fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Cheilanthes argentea (S. G. Gmelin) Kunze lip fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx.) D. C. Eaton hairy lip fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Cheilanthes wrightii Hook. Wright's lip fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Cheiranthus sp. wall-flower Brassicaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Chelidonium majus L. celandine, swallowwort Papaveraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Chelone lyonii Pursh turtlehead Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Chenopodium album L. lamb's quarters, white goosefoot, fat hen Chenopodiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Chloranthus spicatus (Thunb.) Makino chulantree Chloranthaceae A. fragariae (78)
Chlorophytum capense (L.) Voss   Liliaceae A. fragariae (35)
Chrysanthemum hortorum W. Mill. garden chrysanthemum Asteraceae Aphelenchoides sp. (5,29)
Chrysanthemum indicum L.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29)
Chrysanthemum ×morifolium Ramat. chrysanthemum, mum, florist's chrysanthemum Asteraceae A. besseyi, A. ritzemabosi (18)
Chrysanthemum sp.   Asteraceae A. besseyi (42)
Chrysanthemum sp.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (12)
Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich subsp. latilobum (Maxim.) Kitag.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Chrysogonum virginianum L. green and gold Asteraceae A. fragariae (74)
Cibotium sp.   Dicksoniaceae A. besseyi (12)
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. California thistle, creeping thistle, Canadian thistle Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Clematis alpina (L.) Mill.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae, A ritzemabosi (5,29)
Clematis heracleifolia DC. hyacinth-flower clematis Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Clematis tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh.   Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Clematis vitalba L. old man's beard, traveler's joy Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Cochlearia officinalis L. scurvy grass, spoonwort Brassicaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Colchicum sp.   Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18,29)
Coniogramme japonica (Thunb.) Diels   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Convallaria majalis L. lily-of-the-valley Liliaceae A. fragariae (5)
Convolvulus arvensis L. field bindweed Convolvulaceae A. fragariae (35)
Cornus canadensis L. creeping dogwood, dwarf cornel, bunchberry Cornaceae A. fragariae (74)
Cornus florida L. flowering dogwood, eastern flowering dogwood Cornaceae A. fragariae (9)
Crassula coccinea L.   Crassulaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Crassula sp.   Crassulaceae A. fragariae (5)
Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees firecracker plant, firecracker flower, shamrock Acanthaceae A. fragariae (18)
Cryptophragmium zeylanicum   Acanthaceae A. fragariae (5)
Cucumis sativus L. cucumber, gherkin Cucurbitaceae A. besseyi (30)
Cyathea cooperi (Hook. ex F. Muell.) Domin Australian tree fern, straw tree fern Cyatheaceae A. fragariae (63)
Cyclamen persicum Mill. florist's cyclamen Primulaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Cyclamen sp.   Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Cymbidium sp.   Orchidaceae A. fragariae (35)
Cyperus alternifolius L.   Cyperaceae A. fragariae (5)
Cyperus iria L. grasshopper's cyperus, rice flat sedge, umbrella sedge Cyperaceae A. besseyi (18)
Cypripedium sp.   Orchidaceae A. fragariae (5)
Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. bulblet bladder fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. brittle fern, fragile fern, brittle bladderfern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Dahlia pinnata Cav.   Asteraceae A. besseyi, A. fragariae, A. ritzemabosi (18)
Dahlia sp.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Davallia canariensis (L.) Sm. deer-foot fern Davalliaceae A. fragariae (35)
Davallia denticulata (Burm. f.) Mett. ex Kuhn   Davalliaceae A. fragariae (5)
Davallia fijiensis Hook hare's-foot fern, rabbit's-foot fern Davalliaceae A. fragariae (65)
Davallia solida (Forst. ) Sw. sturdy davallia Davalliaceae A. fragariae (5)
Davallia trichomanoides Blume squirrel's foot fern Davalliaceae A. fragariae (12)
Delphinium sp.   Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Dianella revolutum   Liliaceae A. fragariae (35)
Dianthus caryophyllus L. carnation, clove pink, border carnation Caryophyllaceae Aphelenchoides sp. (5, 29)
Diervilla sp.   Caprifoliaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Digitalis grandiflora Mill. yellow foxglove, large yellow foxglove Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Digitalis purpurea L. foxglove Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18,35)
Digitalis sanguinalis   Scrophulariaceae A. besseyi (18)
Digitalis sp.   Scrophulariaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dioscorea trifida L. f. cush-cush, cush-cush yam, mapuey Dioscoreaceae A. besseyi (31)
Diphylleia cymosa Michx. umbrella leaf Berberidaceae A. fragariae (74)
Diplazium arboreum (Desr. ) Alston   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Diplazium cristatum (Desr. ) Alston crested twinsorus fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Diplazium dameriae Pic. Serm.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (45)
Diplazium expansum Willd.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Diplazium proliferum (Lam.) Thouars   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Diplazium pycnocarpon (Spreng.) Broun glade fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Disporum lanuginosum (Michx.) G. Nicholson yellow mandarin Liliaceae A. fragariae (74)
Doronicum columnae Ten. Eastern leopard's bane Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Doronicum orientale Hoffm.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,18)
Doronicum plantagineum L.   Asteraceae A. fragariae (5)
Doronicum sp.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Dryopteris affinis (Lowe) Fraser-Jenk. golden-scale male fern, scaly male fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris affinis (Lowe) Fraser-Jenk. subsp. borreri (Newman) Fraser-Jenk. Borrer's scaly male fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Dryopteris atrata (Wall. ex Kunze) Ching shaggy shield fern, black wood fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris boottii (Tuckerm.) Underw. Boot's wood fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H. P. Fuchs narror buckler fern, spinulose wood fern, toothed wood fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Dryopteris celsa (W. Palmer) Knowlt. et al. log fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris cycadina (Franch. & Sav.) C. Chr. blackwood fern, shaggy wood fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris dilatata (Hoffm.) A. Gray broad buckler fern, broad wood fern, mountain wood fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris erythrosora (D. C. Eaton) Kuntze autumn fern, Japanese shield fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott male fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Dryopteris fuscipes C. Chr.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris goldieana (Hook. ex Goldie) A. Gray Goldie's fern, Goldie's wood fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris hirtipes (Blume) Kuntze   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Dryopteris lorentzii (Hieron.) C. Christ wood fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray marginal fern, marginal wood fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Dryopteris remota (A. Braun ex Döll) Druce scaly buckler fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Dryopteris sp.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Eastern purple coneflower, purple coneflower Asteraceae A. fragariae, A ritzemabosi (18)
Echium sp.   Boraginaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Elingamita sp.   Myrsinaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Elsholtzi ciliata (Thunb.) Hyl. crested late summer mint Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Epilobium montanum L.   Onagraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Epipactis palustris (L.) Crantz marsh orchid Orchidaceae A. fragariae (18)
Epiphyllum sp.   Cactaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. golden pothos, Tongavine, variegated philodendron Araceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Episcia lilacina Hanst. flame violet Gesneriaceae A. fragariae (5)
Erechtites praealta Raf.   Asteraceae A. besseyi (18)
Eremurus stenophyllus (Boiss. & Buhse) Baker   Asphodelaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Erigeron albidus (Willd. ex Spreng.) A.Gray   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Erigeron atticus Vill.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Erigeron glabellus Nutt. streamside fleabane Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Erigeron hybridus Bergmans   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Erigeron uniflorus L.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Eryngium alpinum L.   Apiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Erysimum perofskianum Fisch. & C. A. Mey.   Brassicaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Fatsia japonica (Thunb.) Decne. & Planch. fatsi, glossyleaf paperplant, Japanese fatsia Araliaceae A. fragariae (35)
Fatsia sp.   Araliaceae A. ritzemabosi (12)
Ficus benjamina L. benjamin tree, Java fig, weeping fig Moraceae A. fragariae (12)
Ficus benjamina L. var. comosa (Roxb.) Kurz   Moraceae Aphelenchoides sp. (5)
Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem. India rubber fig, Indian rubber tree, rubber tree Moraceae A. besseyi, A. fragariae (18,42)
Ficus macrophylla Desf. ex Pers. Moreton Bay fig Moraceae A. fragariae (49)
Ficus pumila L.   Moraceae A. fragariae (5)
Ficus sagittata Vahl trailing fig Moraceae A. fragariae (5)
Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl forsythia, goldenbells, weeping forsythia Oleaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Mill. beach strawberry, Chilean strawberry Rosaceae A. fragariae (12)
Fragaria sp.   Rosaceae A. besseyi (41)
Fragaria sp.   Rosaceae A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae (35)
Fragaria vesca L. European strawberry, wild strawberry, woodland strawberry Rosaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier garden strawberry, strawberry Rosaceae A. besseyi, A. fragariae, A. ritzemabosi (18,30)
Fuchsia sp.   Onagraceae A. fragariae (5)
Gaillardia ×grandiflora hort. ex Van Houtte   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Galium aparine L. catchweed bedstraw, cleavers, goose grass Rubiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis Cape jessamine, jasmin Rubiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Geranium macrorrhizum L. bigroot geranium, Bulgarian geranium, rock crane's-bill Geraniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Geranium maculatum L. spotted geranium, wild geranium Geraniaceae A. fragariae (74)
Geranium maderense Yeo   Geraniaceae A. fragariae (35)
Geranium subcaulescens L'Hér. ex DC.   Geraniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Gerbera jamesoni Bolus ex Hooker f.   Asteraceae A. fragariae (18)
Glandularia tenera (Spreng.) Cabrera   Verbenaceae A. fragariae (18)
Glechoma hederacea L.   Lamiaceae A. fragariae, A ritzemabosi (18)
Gloxinia nematanthodes (O.Kuntze) Wiehler   Geraniaceae A. fragariae (44)
Gloxinia sp.   Gesneriaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Gomphrena globosa L. bachelor's button, common globe amaranth Amaranthaceae A. fragariae (18)
Goniolimon speciosum (L.) Boiss.   Plumbaginaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Gunnera sp.   Gunneraceae A. fragariae (35)
Gunnera tinctoria (Molina) Mirb.   Grossulariaceae A. fragariae (18)
Gymnostachyum ceylanicum   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Gypsophila cerastoides D. Don   Caryophyllaceae A. fragariae (18)
Helenium autumnale L. common sneezeweed Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Helianthus annuus L. sunflower Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Helianthus decapetalus L. ten petals sunflower, thin leaf sunflower Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Helianthus sp.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Helianthus tuberosus L. Jerusalem artichoke Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Helichrysum sp.   Asteraceae A. fragariae (5)
Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet false sunflower, oxeye Asteraceae A. fragariae (44)
Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet var. scabra (Dunal) Fernald   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Helleborus antiquorum A. Braun ancient hellebore Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Helleborus cyclophyllus Boissier   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Helleborus foetidus L. stinking hellebore Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (5)
Helleborus intermedius Host.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Helleborus niger L. black helleborus, Christmas rose Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18,35)
Helleborus olympicus Lindl.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Helleborus orientalis Lam. lenten rose Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Helleborus orientalis Lam. ssp. abchasicus (A. Braun) B.Mathew   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (18)
Hemerocallis sp.   Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H. G. Hallier broad leaf hemigraphis Acanthaceae A. fragariae (5)
Hepatica acutiloba (DC.) G. Lawson sharp-lobed hepatica, sharp-lobed liverleaf Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (74)
Heuchera sanguinea Engelm. coral bells Saxifragaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Chinese hibiscus, Hawaiian hibiscus, rose of China Malvaceae A. fragariae (35)
Horminum pyrenaicum L. dragon mouth, Pyrenean dead nettle Lamiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Hortensia sp.   Hydrangeaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Hosta sp.   Liliaceae A. fragariae (48)
Hyacinthoides hispanica (Mill.) Rothm.   Hyacinthaceae A. fragariae (5)
Hydrangea macrophylla   Hydrangeaceae A. besseyi (18)
Hydrangea macrophylla   Hydrangeaceae A. fragariae (10)
Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. subsp. macrophylla hortensia, lacecap hydrangea Hydrangeaceae A. fragariae (5)
Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle Florida elodea, Indian stargrass, water thyme Hydrocharitaceae A. fragariae (12)
Hydrophyllum canadense L.   Hydrophyllaceae A. fragariae (18)
Hydrophyllum virginianum L. John's cabbage, Virginia waterleaf Hydrophyllaceae A. fragariae (74)
Hylotelephium telephioides (Michx.) H. Ohba Allegheny stonecrop Crassulaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H. Ohba subsp. maximum (L.) H. Ohba witch's moneybags Crassulaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Hymenoxys hoopesii (A. Gray) Bierner   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Impatiens balfourii Hook. f.   Balsaminaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Impatiens balsamina L. garden balsam, rose balsam, touch-me-not Balsaminaceae A. besseyi, A. fragariae (18)
Incarvillea delavayi Bureau & Franch.   Bignoniaceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Ipomoea alba L. moonflower Convolvulaceae Aphelenchoides sp. (5)
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth common morning glory, tall morning glory Convolvulaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Iris ensata Thunb. Japanese iris, Japanese water iris, sword leaf iris Iridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Iris sp.   Iridaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5), (35)
Isatis tinctoria L. dyer's woad, woad Brassicaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Jasminum simplicifolium G.Forst. wax jasmine, Australian wax jasmine Oleaceae A. besseyi (63)
Jasminum sp.   Oleaceae A. besseyi (12)
Jeffersonia dubia (Maxim.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Baker & S. Moore twin leaf Berberidaceae A. fragariae (74)
Jovellana sinclairii (Hook.) Kraenzl.   Calceolariaceae A. ritzemabosi (29,35)
Kalanchoe coccinea Welw. ex Britten   Crassulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult. bluebuttons, field scabious, gypsy's rose Dipsacaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Knautia macedonica Griseb. crimson scabious Dipsacaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lactuca sativa L. garden lettuce, lettuce Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Lamium album L. white dead-nettle, white nettle Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29)
Lamium galeobdolon L. yellow archangel Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Lamium maculatum L. spotted dead-nettle Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (29,37)
Lamium purpureum L. purple dead-nettle, red archangel, red dead-nettle Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18,35)
Lantana camara L. lantana Verbenaceae A. fragariae (44)
Lantana sp. lantana, wild sage Verbenaceae A. fragariae (5,35)
Lapageria rosea Ruiz & Pav. Chilean bellflower Philesiaceae A. fragariae (35)
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. subsp. angustifolia   Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Lavandula dentata L. French lavender Lamiaceae A. fragariae (35)
Lemna sp.   Lemnaceae A. besseyi, A. fragariae (12)
Leucanthemum maximum Ramond   Asteraceae A. besseyi, A. ritzemabosi (18), (6)
Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. moon daisy, oxeye daisy, margriet Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Lewisia sp.   Portulacaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Ligularia stenocephala (Maxim.) Matsum. & Koidz. ligularia Asteraceae Aphelenchoides sp. (75)
Ligustrum vulgare L. common privet, European privet, privet Oleaceae A. fragariae (5)
Lilium canadense L. Canada lily, wild meadow lily, yellow bell lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (74)
Lilium henryi Baker Henry's lily Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Lilium humboldtii Roezl & Leichtlin ex Duch. Humboldt lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lilium humboldtii x pardalinum   Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lilium lancifolium Thunb. tiger lily, devil lily, Easter lily Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (35)
Lilium longiflorum Thunb. Easter lily, trumpet lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lilium pardalinum Kellogg subsp. pardalinum leopard lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lilium philippinense Baker Philippine lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (5)
Lilium pumilum DC. coral lily Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Lilium regale E. H. Wilson regal lily, royal lily Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18,35)
Lilium sargentiae E. H. Wilson Sargent lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lilium speciosum Thunb. Japanese lily, showy lily, speciosum lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lilium sulphurgale   Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lilium umbellatum Pursh umbel lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. American spongeplant, frog's bit Hydrocharitaceae A. fragariae (12)
Limnophila sp.   Scrophulariaceae A. fragariae (57)
Limonium bellidifolium (Gouan) Dumort.   Plumbaginaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Limonium gerberi Soldano   Plumbaginaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29,35)
Limonium sinuatum (L.) Mill. perennial sea-lavender Plumbaginaceae A. fragariae (18)
Limonium vulgare Mill.   Plumbaginaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Liriope muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey   Liliaceae A. fragariae (35)
Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour. creeping liriope Liliaceae A. fragariae (35)
Lithodora diffusa (Lag.) I. M. Johnst. scrambling gromwell, shrubby gromwell Boraginaceae A. fragariae (35)
Lobelia erinus L.   Campanulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lophostemon confertus (R. Br.) Peter G. Wilson & J. T. Waterh. brush box, redbox, vinegar tree Myrtaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Lotus corniculatus L. bird's-foot trefoil Fabaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Lupinus sp.   Fabaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. tomato Solanaceae A. ritzemabosi (18,35)
Lycopodium clavatum L. club moss, elk moss, ground-pine Lycopodiaceae A. besseyi (12)
Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.) Herbert   Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Lygodium circinatum (Burm.f.) Sw.   Schizaeaceae A. besseyi, A. fragariae (12,18)
Lygodium volubile Sw.   Schizaeaceae A. fragariae (5)
Macropiper excelsum (G. Forst.) Miq. subsp. psittacorum (Endl.) Sykes   Piperaceae A. fragariae (35)
Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link large false Solomon's seal, Solomon's plume, treacle-berry Ruscaceae A. fragariae (74)
Maranta leuconeura E. Morren prayerplant, ten commandments Marantaceae A. fragariae (53)
Marattia salicifolia Schrad. king fern Marattiaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Marattia salicina Rees king fern, potato fern Marattiaceae A. fragariae (35)
Marchantia sp.   Marchantiaceae A. fragariae (35)
Marshallia caespitosa Nutt. ex DC.   Asteraceae A. fragariae (44)
Matricaria grandiflora (Hook.) Britt.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (32)
Matteuccia orientalis (Hook.) Trevis.   Dryopteridaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Medicago polymorpha L. bur medic, hairy medic, toothed bur-clover Fabaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Medicago sativa L.   Fabaceae A. fragariae (12)
Medicago sativa L.   Fabaceae A. ritzemabosi (18,35)
Mentha ×piperita L. peppermint Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Mentha spicata L. spearmint Lamiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Mertensia sibirica (L.) G. Don   Boraginaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Microlepia platyphylla (Don) J. Sm. plate fern Dennstaedtiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Mildella nitidula (Wall. ex Hook.) Hall et Lell.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Mimulus guttatus DC. common monkey-flower Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Morina longifolia Wall. ex DC.   Morinaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Musa uranoscopos Lour.   Musaceae A. fragariae (35)
Muscari sp.   Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian water-milfoil, spike water-milfoil Haloragaceae A. fragariae (12)
Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & W. L. E. Schmidt slender naiad Najadaceae A. fragariae (12)
Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. common daffodil, trumpet narcissus Liliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Narcissus sp.   Liliaceae A. fragariae (12)
Nemesia reptans   Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Nepeta hederacea (L.) Trev ground ivy Lamiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott giant sword fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott Boston sword fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Nerine sp.   Liliaceae A. fragariae (5)
Nicotiana alata Link & Otto jasmine tobacco Solanaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Nicotiana rustica L. native tobacco, wild tobacco, Aztec tobacco Solanaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Nicotiana sp.   Solanaceae A. fragariae (18)
Nicotiana tabacum L. tobacco Solanaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Nicotiana virginiana   Solanaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Ocimum basilicum L. basil, sweet basil Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Ocimum sp.   Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (5)
Ocymum sp.   Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Odontoglossum sp.   Orchidaceae A. fragariae (18)
Omphalodes verna Moench creeping forget-me-not, blue-eyed Mary Boraginaceae A. fragariae (5)
Orchidaceae sp.   Orchidaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (12)
Oryza sativa L. rice, lowland rice, upland rice Poaceae A. besseyi (18,30)
Osmunda japonica Thunb.   Osmundaceae A. fragariae (44)
Osmunda regalis L. royal fern Osmundaceae A. fragariae (5)
Oxalis regnellii   Oxalidaceae A. fragariae (44)
Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Chinese peony, common garden peony Paeoniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Paeonia lutea Delavay ex Franch.   Paeoniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Paeonia mlokosewitschii Lomakin   Paeoniaceae A. fragariae (58)
Paeonia officinalis L. common peony, cottage peony, European peony Paeoniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Paeonia sp.   Paeoniaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29)
Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews moutan peony, tree peony Paeoniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Paeonia wittmanniana Lindl.   Paeoniaceae A. fragariae (18)
Papaver orientale L. Oriental poppy Papaveraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Paphiopedilum dayanum (Lindl.) Stein   Orchidaceae A. fragariae (18)
Paphiopedilum sp.   Orchidaceae A. fragariae (18)
Paris quadrifolia L. herb-Paris Melanthiaceae A. fragariae (2)
Passiflora edulis Sims purple granadilla, grenadella Passifloraceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Pelargonium sp.   Geraniaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pellaea nitidula (Hook.) Wall. ex Bak.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Pellaea viridis (Forssk.) Prantl   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (65)
Peltiphyllum peltatum (Torr.) Engl. umbrella plant, Indian rhubarb Saxifragaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Penstemon barbatus (Cav.) Roth   Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29)
Penstemon gentianoides (Kunth) Poir.   Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,29)
Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. hairy beardtongue, northeastern beardtongue Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Penstemon laevigatus Aiton eastern smooth beardtongue Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Penstemon neomexicanus Woot. & Standl. New Mexico beardtongue Scrophulariaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers Egyptian star-cluster, star-cluster Rubiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Peperomia argyreia (Miq.) E. Morren watermelon pepper, watermelon-begonia Piperaceae A. ritzemabosi (12)
Peperomia caperata Yunck. emerald ripple pepper, green ripple pepper, little fantasy pepper Piperaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Peperomia glabella (Sw.) A. Dietr.   Piperaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Peperomia griseoargentea Yunck. ivy pepper, platinum pepper, silverleaf pepper Piperaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Peperomia magnoliaefolia (Jacq.) A. Dietr. desert privet Piperaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Peplis diandra Nutt. ex DC.   Lythraceae A. fragariae (57)
Pericallis cruenta (Masson ex L'Hér.) Bolle   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Pericallis x hybrida R. Nordenstam florist's cineraria, cineraria Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Persicaria maculosa Gray lady's thumb, redshank, spotted lady's thumb Polygonaceae A. fragariae (35)
Petunia sp.   Solanaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. bean Fabaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Phegopteris decursive-pinnata (H. C. Hall) Fee winged beech fern, Japanese beech fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm. gold-foot fern, golden polypody, rabbit's foot fern Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (5,65)
Phlebodium pseudoaureum (Cav.) Lellinger   Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Phlox amoena Sims hairy phlox Polemoniaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Phlox decussata Lyon ex Pursh   Polemoniaceae A. fragariae (5)
Phlox douglasii Hook.   Polemoniaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Phlox drummondii Hook. annual phlox, Drummond's phlox, pride-of-Texas Polemoniaceae A. ritzemabosi (5, 29)
Phlox paniculata L. fall phlox, garden phlox, summer phlox Polemoniaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Phlox subulata L. moss phlox, moss pink, mountain phlox Polemoniaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien pygmy date palm Arecaceae A. fragariae (35)
Phyllocactus sp.   Cactaceae A. fragariae (18)
Phymatodes diversifolium (Willd.) Pich.Ser.   Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (35)
Phytolacca icosandra L. red inkplant, tropical pokeweed Phytolaccaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Pinus palustris Mill. longleaf pine, pitch pine, southern yellow pine Pinaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link dixie silverback fern, silver fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pityrogramma chrysophylla (Sw.) Link island goldback fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (62)
Pityrogramma triangularis (Kaulfuss) goldback fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (62)
Plantago lanceolata L. buckhorn, ribgrass, ribwort plantain Plantaginacea A. ritzemabosi (35)
Plantago major L. broadleaf plantain, common plantain, grand plantain Plantaginacea A. ritzemabosi (18)
Platycerium ellisii Baker staghorn fern Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (12)
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. var. odorata   Asteraceae A. besseyi (18)
Poa annua L. annual bluegrass, annual meadow grass Poaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Podophyllum peltatum L. American mandrake, mayapple Berberidaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Podophyllum pleianthum Hance   Berberidaceae A. fragariae (44)
Polianthes tuberosa L. tuberose Agavaceae A. besseyi (3)
Polianthes tuberosa L. tuberose Agavaceae A. ritzemabosi (29,46)
Polypodium brasiliense Poir. angle-vein fern Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Polypodium percussum Cav.   Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Polypodium phymatodes L.   Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Polypodium punctatum (L.) Sw. dwarf elkhorn fern Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Polypodium repens Aubl.   Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Polypodium vulgare L. golden maidenhair, wall fern, common polypody Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott Christmas fern, dagger fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Polystichum braunii (Spenn.) Fée Braun's holly fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (74)
Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) C. Presl common sword fern, western sword fern Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Polystichum xiphophyllum (Bak.) Diels.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Potamogeton sp.   Potamogetonaceae A. fragariae (57)
Potentilla alpina (Willk.) Zimmeter   Rosaceae A. fragariae (18)
Potentilla anserina L. goose grass, silverweed cinquefoil, wild tansy Rosaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Potentilla fragiformis Willd. ex Schltdl. strawberry cinquefoil Rosaceae A. fragariae (35)
Prenanthes alba L. rattlesnake root, white rattlesnake root, white lettuce Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Primula anisiaca Stapf   Primulaceae A. fragariae (5)
Primula angustifolia var. helenae Pollard & Cockerell   Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Primula auricula L. auricula, dusty miller, bear's ear Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Primula beesiana Forr. candelabra primula Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Primula denticulata Sm. drumstick primula Primulaceae A. fragariae (5)
Primula denticulata cachemiriana   Primulaceae A. fragariae (5)
Primula flaccida N. P. Balakr.   Primulaceae A. fragariae (35)
Primula japonica A. Gray   Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Primula luteola Ruprecht   Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Primula malacoides Franch. baby primrose, fairy primrose Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Primula obconica Hance German primrose, poison primrose Primulaceae A. fragariae (5)
Primula ×polyantha Mill. polyanthus primula Primulaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Primula pulverulenta Duthie   Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Primula rosea Royle   Primulaceae A. fragariae (5)
Primula wanda   Primulaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Primula wilsonii Dunn   Primulaceae A. fragariae (18)
Prosartes maculata (Buckley) A. Gray   Liliaceae A. fragariae (74)
Prunus cerasus L. sour cherry, tart cherry, pie cherry Rosaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Psychotria nervosa Sw.   Rubiaceae A. fragariae (39)
Pteris alexandriae   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pteris altissima Poir. tall brake Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pteris altissima repandula   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pteris biaurita allosora   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pteris biaurita var. repandula (Link) Kauh   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pteris cretica L. Cretan brake Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5,65)
Pteris dentata Forssk.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pteris denticulata Sw. toothed brake Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pteris droogmansiana   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pteris longifolia L.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pteris multifida Poir. Chinese brake, spider brake, spider fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pteris ouvrardi   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pteris pellucida C.Presl   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5)
Pteris podophylla Sw.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pteris quadriaurita Retz.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18,65)
Pteris serrulata Forssk.   Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pteris tremula R. Br. Australian brake, shaking brake, tender brake fern Pteridaceae A. fragariae (5,65)
Pteris umbrosa R. Br. jungle brake Pteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pteris vittata L. Chinese brake, Chinese ladder brake, ladder brake Pteridaceae A. fragariae (12)
Pulmonaria officinalis L. hundreds-and-thousands, lungwort, Joseph-and-Mary Boraginaceae A. fragariae (18)
Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw. felt fern, pyrrosia, tongue fern Polypodiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Pyrus sp.   Rosaceae A. fragariae (5)
Ranunculus acer L.   Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Ranunculus acris L. meadow buttercup, tall buttercup Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Ranunculus alpestris L. alpine buttercup Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (5)
Ranunculus auricomus L.   Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Ranunculus montanus Willd.   Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (5)
Ranunculus repens L. creeping buttercup Ranunculaceae A. ritzemabosi (5,35)
Ranunculus speciosus Plenus. large double buttercup Ranunculaceae A. fragariae (59)
Rodgersia podophylla A. Gray   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Rodgersia purdomii hort.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Rodgersia sambucifolia Hemsl.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Rheum rhabarbarum L. rhubarb Polygonaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Rhododendron indicum (L.) Sweet   Ericaceae A. fragariae (12)
Rhododendron sp.   Ericaceae A. fragariae (12)
Ribes nigrum L. black currant Grossulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (5)
Ribes rubrum L. common currant, garden currant, red currant Grossulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Ribes sanguineum Pursh red-flower currant, winter currant Grossulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Ribes uva-crispa L. gooseberry Grossulariaceae A. fragariae, A. ritzemabosi (5,29,35)
Rosa sp.   Rosaceae A. besseyi (12)
Rubus fruticosus auct. aggr. European blackberry Rosaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Rubus idaeus L. red raspberry Rosaceae A. ritzemabosi (18,35)
Rubus taiwanicola Koidzumi & Ohwi Taiwan raspberry Rosaceae A. fragariae (44)
Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schltdl. California blackberry, Pacific dewberry Rosaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton orange coneflower Asteraceae ritzemabsoi (18)
Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.) Perdue orange coneflower Asteraceae A. fragariae (5)
Rudbeckia hirta L. black-eyed-Susan Asteraceae A. besseyi (12)
Rudbeckia laciniata L. cut-leaf coneflower, tall coneflower Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Rudbeckia maxima Nutt. cabbage coneflower, giant coneflower Asteraceae Aphelenchoides sp. (75)
Rudbeckia newmani Loud.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Rudbeckia nitida Nutt. black-eyed-Susan, shiny coneflower, St. John's-Susan Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Rumex alpinus L. alpine dock, butter dock, mountain rhubarb Polygonaceae A. fragariae (18)
Rumex sagittatus Thunb. climbing dock, rambling dock, turkey rhubarb Polygonaceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Ruscus hypophyllum L. Florida ruscus, Holland ruscus, Israeli ruscus Liliaceae A. fragariae (47)
Sagittaria subulata (L.) Buchenau   Alismataceae A. fragariae (12)
Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl. African violet Gesneriaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,18)
Saintpaulia magungensis E.P.Roberts   Gesneriaceae A. fragariae (43)
Salix reticulata L.   Salicaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Salvia cacaliaefolia Benth. ivy leaf sage, Guatemalan blue vine sage, Gentian leaf sage Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Salvia chiapensis Fernald meadow sage, Chiapas sage Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Salvia corrugata Vahl. sage Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Salvia farinacea Benth. mealy sage, mealy-cup sage Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Salvia farreri var glechomifolia   Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Salvia greggii A. Gray autumn sage Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Salvia microphylla Kunth baby sage Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Salvia officinalis L. sage Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Salvia pratensis L. meadow clary, meadow sage Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Salvia sp.   Lamiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Salvia splendens Sellow ex Schult. bonfire salvia, scarlet sage Lamiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Salvia ×superba Stapf perennial sage Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Salvia sylvestris L. wild sage, woodland sage Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Salvia uliginosa Benth bog sage Lamiaceae A. fragariae (44)
Sambucus racemosa L.   Caprifoliaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Sansevieria sp.   Agavaceae A. fragariae (35)
Saxifraga decipiens Ehrh.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Saxifraga peltata (Torr. ex Benth.) Voss Indian rhubarb Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (5)
Saxifraga rotundifolia L.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Saxifraga stolonifera Meerb. creeping saxifrage, roving sailor Saxifragaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Saxifraga x superba Rouy & Camus.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (58)
Scabiosa caucasica M. Bieb.   Saxifragaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Scabiosa columbaria L. pigeon's scabious, scabious Saxifragaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Scabiosa lucida Vill.   Saxifragaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (18)
Scabiosa silenifolia Waldst. & Kit.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (5)
Scilla sp.   Liliaceae A. fragariae (5)
Scrophularia vernalis L. yellow figwort Scrophulariaceae A. fragariae (18)
Sempervivum sp.   Crassulaceae A. fragariae (5)
Senecio alpinum   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Senecio clivorum Maxim.   Asteraceae A. fragariae (18)
Senecio nemorensis L. alpine ragwort Asteraceae A. fragariae (18)
Senecio petasitis (Sims) DC. velvet groundsel Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (35)
Senecio vulgaris L. common groundsel, groundsel Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (5), (35)
Serapias palustris (L.) Mill.   Orchidaceae A. fragariae (5)
Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.   Poaceae A. besseyi (18)
Silene elisabethae Jan Elisabeth's campion Caryophyllaceae A. fragariae (18)
Silene schafta S.G.Gmel. ex Hohen moss campion Caryophyllaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Sinningia speciosa (Lodd. et al.) Hiern florist's gloxinia, gloxinia, violet slipper gloxinia Gesneriaceae A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,35)
Sisyrinchium palmifolium L. bird of paradise Iridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Solanum nigrum L. black nightshade, common nightshade, poison berry Solanaceae A. ritzemabosi (18,35)
Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd coleus, painted-nettle Lamiaceae A. besseyi (18)
Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd coleus, painted-nettle Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Solenostemon sp. coleus, painted-nettle Lamiaceae A. fragariae (5)
Solidago rupestris   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Sonchus arvensis L. perennial sow thistle, corn sow thistle Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Sonchus oleraceus L. annual sow thistle, hare's-lettuce Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18,35)
Spirea aruncus L.   Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. indicus smut grass Poaceae A. besseyi (12)
Stachys alopecuros (L.) Benth. yellow betony Lamiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Stachys longifolia Benth.   Lamiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Stachys macrantha (K. Koch) Stearn   Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. bishop's-wort, purple betony, wood betony Lamiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Stachys palustris L. hedge nettle, marsh betony, woundwort Lamiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Stachys riederi var. japonica Miq.   Lamiaceae A. fragariae (33)
Stachys sylvatica L.   Lamiaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. chickweed Caryophyllaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Stenochlaena tenuifolia (Desv.) T. Moore holly fern Blechnaceae A. fragariae (18)
Stenoglottis longifolia Hook.f.   Orchidaceae A. fragariae (5)
Strelitzia reginae Aiton bird-of-paradise, craneflower Strelitziaceae A. fragariae (35)
Streptocarpus sp.   Gesneriaceae A. fragariae (1)
Strobilanthes dyerianus Mast Persian shield Acanthaceae A. fragariae (5)
Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G. L. Nesom rice button aster, bushy aster, long-stalk aster Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G.L. Nesom var. ericoides white heath aster Asteraceae A. fragariae (44)
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G. L. Nesom New York aster, Michaelmas daisy Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Symphyotrichum tradescantii (L.) G. L. Nesom Trandescant's aster Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Symphytum asperum Lepech. prickly comfrey, rough comfrey Boraginaceae A. fragariae (18)
Symphytum officinale L. common comfrey, healing-herb, consound Boraginaceae A. fragariae (35)
Symphytum officinale L. common comfrey, healing-herb, consound Boraginaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Symphytum x uplandicum Nyman   Boraginaceae A. fragariae (35)
Tagetes sp.   Asteraceae A. besseyi (18)
Tagetes sp.   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Tanacetum balsamita L. subsp. balsamitoides (Sch. Bip.) Grierson   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) Sch. Bip. Dalmatia pyrethrum, Dalmatian insect flower, pyrethrum Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Tanacetum coccineum (Willd.) Grierson painted daisy, Persian insect-flower, pyrethrum Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip. subsp. corymbosum   Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. feverfew, altamisa Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. aggr. dandelion, lion's-tooth Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Tectaria barteri (J.Sm.) C.Chr.   Dryopteridaceae Aphelenchoides sp. (5)
Tectaria heracleifolia (Willd.) Underw.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (12)
Tectaria polymorpha (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel.   Dryopteridaceae Aphelenchoides sp. (5)
Tectaria siifolia (Willd.) Copel.   Dryopteridaceae A. fragariae (18)
Tellima grandiflora (Pursh) Dougl. ex Lindl. bigflower tellima, fringe-cup Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (18)
Teucrium arduini L.   Lamiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Teucrium chamaedrys L. wall germander Lamiaceae A. fragariae (18)
Thelypteris dentata (Forsk) St.John. maiden fern Thelypteridaceae A. fragariae (44)
Thelypteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Fée broad beechfern Thelypteridaceae A. fragariae (74)
Thelypteris reptans (J.F. Gmel.) Morton creeping maiden fern Thelypteridaceae A. fragariae (12)
Tiarella cordifolia L. foamflower Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (44)
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray Mexican-sunflower, shrub sunflower Asteraceae A. besseyi (18)
Todea barbara (L.) T.Moore todea fern Osmundaceae A. fragariae (35)
Tolmiea menziesii (Pursh.) Torr.& A.Gray. piggyback plant, youth-on-age, thousand mothers Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (65)
Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Fourn. bluewings, wishbone flower Scrophulariaceae A. besseyi (18)
Tovara virginiana (L.) Raf. jump seed, painter's palette Polygonaceae A. fragariae (44)
Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D. R. Hunt purpleheart Commelinaceae A. besseyi (12)
Tradescantia virginiana L. Virginia spiderwort, widow's-tears Commelinaceae A. fragariae (18)
Tradescantia zebrina hort. ex Bosse wandering-Jew, inchplant Commelinaceae A. fragariae (18)
Tricyrtis hirta (Thunb.) Hook. hairy toad lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (44)
Tricyrtis macrantha Maxim. toad lily Liliaceae A. fragariae (44)
Trientalis borealis Raf.   Primulaceae A. fragariae (74)
Trifolium pratense L. purple clover, red clover, peavine clover Fabaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Trifolium repens L. Dutch clover, white clover, ladino clover Fabaceae A. fragariae (5)
Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. large white trillium Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Trillium rugelii Rendle ill-scented wakerobin Liliaceae A. fragariae (44)
Triosteum fargesii Franch.   Caprifoliaceae A. fragariae (18)
Tulipa sp.   Liliaceae A. ritzemabosi (29)
Ulmus sp.   Ulmaceae A. fragariae (5)
Urtica dioica L.   Urticaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Urtica urens L. burning nettle, dwarf nettle, small nettle Urticaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Utricularia foliosa L.   Lentibulariaceae A. fragariae (12)
Valeriana montana L. mountain valerian Valerianaceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Vanda sp.   Orchidaceae A. besseyi, A. fragariae (18)
Verbena candensis (L.) Britton rose verbena Verbenaceae A. fragariae (44)
Verbena rigida Spreng. var. rigida   Verbenaceae A. ritzemabosi (5,29)
Verbena tenuisecta Briq. moss verbena Verbenaceae A. fragariae (44)
Verbena x hybrida   Verbenaceae A. fragariae (44)
Veronica sp.   Scrophulariaceae A. ritzemabosi (29,35)
Veronica agrestis L. field speedwell Verbenaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Veronica grandis Fisch. ex Spreng. heartleaf speedwell Verbenaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Veronica incana L.   Verbenaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Veronica spicata L. spiked speedwell Verbenaceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Veronica spicata   Verbenaceae A. fragariae (44)
Viburnum ×bodnantense Aberc.   Adoxaceae A. ritzemabosi (59)
Viola odorata L. English violet, garden violet, sweet violet Violaceae A. fragariae (5)
Viola sp.   Violaceae A. fragariae (5)
Viola uliginosa Besser   Violaceae A. fragariae (18)
Vitex negundo L. Chinese chastetree, five-leaf chastetree Verbenaceae A. fragariae (12)
Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Tratt. barren strawberry Rosaceae A. fragariae (74)
Woodwardia fimbriata Sm. giant chain fern Blechnaceae A. fragariae (18)
Wulfenia carinthiaca Jacq. cow’s footstep wulfenia Plantaginacea A. fragariae (53)
x Heucherella sp. heucherella, foamy bells Saxifragaceae A. fragariae (44)
Xanthium strumarium L. var. canadense (Mill.) Torr. & A. Gray cocklebur Asteraceae A. fragariae (5)
Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng. calla-lily, arum-lily, trumpet-lily Araceae A. fragariae (35)
Zinnia haageana Regel Mexican zinnia, panochit Asteraceae A. ritzemabosi (18)
Zinnia violacea Cav. common zinnia, youth-and-old-age Asteraceae A. besseyi, A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae (5,18)