A potyvirus (proposed name of Zea mosaic virus [ZeMV]) isolated from maize in Israel was analyzed by serology, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of capsid proteins, symptomatology, and sequencing. Parts of the nuclear inclusion b, coat protein, and 3′ regions were sequenced; the amino acid sequence of ZeMV capsid was determined by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). The results of these analyses were compared with those of similar analyses of the following potyviruses: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus strain MDB (SCMV-MDB), Johnsongrass mosaic virus(JGMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and an isolate of MDMV from Israel. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using ZeMV antiserum detected only ZeMV, and reciprocal tests using MDMV, JGMV, or SrMV antisera failed to detect ZeMV. ZeMV cross-reacted weakly when SCMV-MDB antiserum was used. The mass of ZeMV capsid was determined to be 36,810 Da by SDS-PAGE and 34,216 Da by TOFMS. The ZeMV systemically infected johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), but did not infect oat (Avena sativa), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), or rye (Secale cereale). Necrosis was caused in 19 sorghum lines by SrMV, in 15 by ZeMV, in 14 by MDMV, and in 5 by JGMV and SCMV-MDB. The nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of ZeMV clearly showed that it is not a strain of JGMV, MDMV, SCMV, or SrMV.