The recent introduction and rapid spread of rust on daylilies, caused by Puccinia hemerocallidis, suggested a need for fungicide treatments that reduce urediniospore viability on plant surfaces. Twelve fungicides in seven chemical classes were evaluated in vitro for toxicity to urediniospores of rust fungi that occur on daylily (P. hemerocallidis), geranium P. pelargonii-zonalis), iris (P. iridis), oxalis (P. oxalis), mint (P. menthae), and Florida azalea (Pucciniastrum vaccinii). Germination of urediniospores of all six rust fungi on potato dextrose agar in the absence of fungicides ranged from 54 to 88%. Germination of urediniospores of all rust species during and after exposure to azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, copper sulfate pentahydrate, mancozeb, and trifloxystrobin was less than or near 1%. Germination during exposure to fenhexamid, iprodione, myclobutanil, propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triadimefon, and triflumizole ranged from 0 to 60% and usually was greater (0 to 75%) after fungicide residues had been removed. Germination of urediniospores of P. pelargonii-zonalis decreased when exposed to azoxystrobin, copper sulfate pentahydrate, and mancozeb for 1 min and was nearly eliminated after a 30-min exposure, while exposure to trifloxystrobin and chlorothalonil eliminated germination after 4 and 8 h, respectively. Urediniospores that had been allowed to imbibe water for 4 h had no further germination or germ tube growth after a 24-h exposure to azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, copper sulfate pentahydrate, mancozeb, and trifloxystrobin. Less than one lesion per plant developed on seedlings inoculated with urediniospores of P. pelargonii-zonalis that had been sprayed with azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, copper sulfate pentahydrate, and mancozeb, whereas seedlings inoculated with spores not exposed to fungicides developed 148 lesions per plant. The strobilurin (azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin), broad-spectrum protectant (chlorothalonil and mancozeb), and inorganic copper (copper sulfate pentahydrate) fungicides were fungicidal to urediniospores of the six rust fungi. However, the benzimidazole (thiophanate-methyl), dicarboximide (iprodione), hydroxyanilide (fenhexamid), and demethylation-inhibiting (myclobutanil, propiconazole, triadimefon, and triflumizole) fungicides were only fungistatic to rust urediniospores.
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