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Toward Sustainable Peanut Production: Progress in Breeding for Resistance to Foliar and Soilborne Pathogens of Peanut. B. B. Shew, Research Associate, Department of Crop Science; M. K. Beute, Professor, Department of Plant Pathology; and H. T. Stalker, Professor, Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7616. PLANT DIS. 79:1259. Accepted for publication 10 September 1995. Copyright The American Phytopathological Society. DOI: 10.1094/PD-79-1259.

Peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., is a legume grown in warm climates throughout the world. In many developing countries, peanut is an important source of calories, protein, and oil. In the United States, this high-value crop is used primarily in peanut butter and snacks. North Carolina and Virginia produce virginia-type peanut, which is large-seeded and used for roasted shelled or in-the-shell products. Yields average 2,800 to 3,400 kglha, but yields of 4,500 kglha or more are common for top producers. Gross returns of at least $2,500/ha are typical. These large yields and high returns are a product of intensive management, which includes extensive land preparation, frequent application of pesticides, and use of high quality culti- vars. Without these inputs, yields usually range from 800 to 1,700 kglha. Thus, there is a great need in developing countries to increase yield and quality in low-input production systems. In the future, increasing economic and environmental pressures in the United States also will require that high yields be produced with fewer inputs.