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Comparison of Four Serological Methods for Practical Detection of Ten Viruses of Rice in Plants and Insects. Y. Takahashi, Japan Plant Protection Association, Ushiku, Ibaraki 300-12, Japan. T. Omura, K. Shohara, and T. Tsuchizaki. National Agriculture Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan; Japan Plant Protection Association, Ushiku, Ibaraki 300-12, Japan; and Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Plant Dis. 75:458-461. Accepted for publication 11 October 1990. Copyright 1991 The American Phytopathological Society. DOI: 10.1094/PD-75-0458.

Four serological methods (ELISA, simplified ELISA, latex flocculation test [LF], and passive hemagglutination test [PHA]) were compared for practical detection of 10 viruses of rice in plants and viruliferous insects. All of the viruses were detected by ELISA and simplified ELISA. The detection of the viruses in plants with systemic infections was easier than the detection of phloem-restricted viruses. Some viruses in plants could not be detected in LF and PHA because of inhibition or nonspecific reactions. All of the viruses that are transmitted in a persistent manner were easily detected in individual insect vectors by ELISA and simplified ELISA, but some viruses were unable to detect by LF and PHA. Based on the results, the order of virus detection sensitivity of the methods was: ELISA ≥ simplified ELISA ≥ LF ? PHA. On the other hand, the order of simplicity of the tests was: LF ≥ PHA ≥ simplified ELISA ≥ ELISA. In mass inspection of viruliferous insects, the smashing method (one push of individual insects with a vinyl chloride rod directly in a well of microplate) provides sufficient extraction of the virus antigen. By adopting this direct smashing method, simplified ELISA has a comparative advantage over LF and PHA. The establishment of the practical serodiagnosis we demonstrated will undoubtedly strengthen integrated control of the virus diseases of rice.