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Herbicide, Planting Date, and Root Disease Interactions in Corn. Donald R. Sumner, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA 31793. Clyde C. Dowler, Research Agronomist, USDA, ARS, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, GA 31793. Plant Dis. 67:513-517. Accepted for publication 4 October 1982. This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. The American Phytopathological Society, 1983. DOI: 10.1094/PD-67-513.

The interaction of herbicides and root disease of corn caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-2 type 2 and R. zeae was studied in tests in a greenhouse and environmental chambers. In a greenhouse test with R. solani AG-2 type 2, root disease severity increased and root and shoot development were restricted in soil treated with pendimethalin and metolachlor. Alachlor, cyanazine, and cyanazine plus atrazine caused variable effects, and butylate and atrazine did not influence root disease severity or plant growth. Plant height was decreased significantly by X and 2X rates of the herbicides in uninfested soil but only by the X rate in infested soil. In environmental chambers, pendimethalin and metolachlor increased root disease severity and reduced plant height at night-day temperatures of 920, 1525, and 2132 C in untreated or heat-treated Dothan loamy sand. In soil infested with R. solani or R. zeae, pendimethalin caused more swollen club-shaped root enlargements at temperatures of 1225 C than at 821 and 2032 C. In field tests in Bonifay sand, root disease severity increased in soil treated with pendimethalin in corn planted on 3 March but not in corn planted on 21 February, 17 and 25 March, or 4 April. Grain yield was lower in soil treated with pendimethalin in the 3 March planting, and in soil treated with pendimethalin, metolachlor, and butylate in the 25 March planting. The herbicides did not increase root disease severity or decrease yield at any planting date on Tifton loamy sand. There were more enlarged roots in pendimethalin-treated plots in the first two plantings than in the last three plantings. In early plantings of corn when soil temperatures are 518 C, severe root injury and increased root disease severity may occur in sand and loamy sand soils treated with pendimethalin.