D. D. Wu, Biotechnology Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530007, P. R. China;
G. Fu, Microbiology Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530007, P. R. China;
Y. F. Ye and
F. Y. Hu, Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, Nanning 530023, P. R. China;
H. F. Mou and
L. L. Qin, Biotechnology Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530007, P. R. China; and
N. Jiang, Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, Nanning 530023, P. R. China. This work was supported by some projects (14125003-1-15, 1346003-14 and nycytxgxcxtd-04-19-14)
The climbing vine, Vitis heyneana Roem. & Schult, is a member of the grape family endemic to Asia. Its fruits are used in wine production, and its roots, stems, and leaves can be used in medicinal materials. This plant is grown in Southwest China, as well as in India, Bhutan, and Nepal. Mulao Autonomous County in Guangxi Province is the only artificial cultivation area in China. During the summer of 2013, a panicle blight and leaf spot were detected on V. heyneana on four farms in Mulao Autonomous County. The symptoms were observed from the onset of florescence through fruit harvest. Brown lesions initially appeared at the base of a panicle and then extended to the whole panicle, finally causing the panicle to die and fruit to drop. When the disease developed on leaves, the symptom initially appeared as small dark brown circular spots, later enlarging into irregular spots (average diameter 6 mm) with a light brown center and dark brown rim. With severe disease, some individual leaves were affected by numerous spots, leading to premature senescence. Small sections of diseased tissue excised from 10 panicle and 10 leaf samples were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 28°C. Fungal colonies developed, initially with abundant white aerial mycelium, which turned olivaceous gray after 5 days and formed black pycnidia after 25 days. The conidia were hyaline, ellipsoidal to fusiform, externally smooth, thin-walled, and nonseptate. Thirty conidia were measured; the dimensions were 12.0 to 17.5 × 4.0 to 6.0 μm. Morphological characteristics of the isolates were similar to the descriptions of Neofusicoccum parvum (3). The isolate MPT-1 was selected as a representative for molecular identification. Genomic DNA was extracted and used for PCR to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) gene, using primers ITS1/ITS4 and EF1-728F/EF1-986R, respectively. The obtained ITS sequence (GenBank Accession No. KJ599627) and EF1-α sequence (KM921768) showed >99% homology with several GenBank sequences of N. parvum. Morphological and molecular results confirmed the isolate as N. parvum. For pathogenicity tests, detached, young healthy panicles and leaves of V. heyneana were surface-sterilized, wounded by sterile needle, and inoculated with mycelial plugs (3 mm in diameter) of four N. parvum isolates. Ten panicles and 10 leaves were used for every isolate. Control panicles and leaves were treated with sterile PDA plugs. All the samples were placed in a humid chamber (RH 90%, 28°C, 12 h of light) for 3 days. Symptoms similar to those observed in the field developed on all panicles and leaves inoculated with N. parvum isolates. N. parvum was reisolated from all inoculated, symptomatic tissues. The controls remained symptomless. N. parvum has been reported to cause trunk canker on V. vinifera (2), dieback on Cupressus funebris (3), and a leaf spot on Myristica fragrans (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. parvum causing panicle blight and leaf spot on V. heyneana in China. Panicle blight caused a large number of fruits to drop and reduced the yield seriously. Some effective measures should be taken to control this disease.
References: (1) V. Jayakumar et al. New Dis. Rep. 23:19, 2011. (2) J. Kaliternam et al. Plant Dis. 97:1656, 2013. (3) S. B. Li et al. Plant Dis. 94:641, 2010.